August 19, 2022

Russia, Russian Federation (Russian: Россия, Rossija, pronunciation; Russian: Российская Федерация, Rossijskaya Fiedieracija, pronunciation) - a federal state stretching from Eastern Europe (with an exclave in Central Europe) through the northern part of Asia to the Pacific Ocean, consisting of constitution of 85 federal entities. The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world by area and the sixth largest in world history. In terms of population, it ranks 9th. Russia is one of the largest economies in the world, and in terms of GDP it ranks 11th in the world. It has the world's largest natural resources and energy sources. He is a member of many international organizations, incl. one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, G20, Eurasian Economic Union, Commonwealth of Independent States, Shanghai Cooperation Organization and plays a significant role in world politics. Russia has the worst quality of life index in Europe, according to Numbeo. According to Russian historiography, the beginnings of Russian statehood go back to the 9th century and Kievan Rus. Ruthenian culture was strongly influenced by the Southern Slavs and Byzantium, through whom Orthodoxy was adopted. In the 12th century, Ruthenia was broken down into subordinate principalities. The Duchy of Moscow, separated in the 13th century, led to the unification of the north-eastern Ruthenian lands and their liberation from the Tatar rule (13th – 15th centuries). The Tatar invasions had a strong influence on the history of Rus, and the Tatars themselves are now Russia's largest ethnic minority. In 1547, Ivan IV the Terrible was crowned tsar and the name of the state was changed to the Russian Empire. In the years 862–1598 the ruling dynasty was Rurykowicze, in the years 1613–1917 the Romanovs sat on the throne. During the reign of Peter the Great, Russia's position in the international arena was strengthened and the Russian Empire was established. In the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, Russia gained huge areas in Eastern Europe, North Asia, Central Asia, the Caucasus and temporarily in North America (the Russian presence on this continent ended the sale of Alaska to the USA in 1867). The February Revolution of March 1917 (during World War I) overthrew tsarism, introducing multi-party rule and civil liberties for several months. In September 1917, the Provisional Government declared Russia a republic. On the night of November 6/7, 1917, just before the first democratic elections in Russia's history to the All-Russian Legislative Assembly (constituents of Russia) called by the Provisional Government, the Bolsheviks carried out an armed coup and seized power in the country. In January 1918, they dispersed the elected constituent, and then - after the bloody civil war - consolidated in Russia the dictatorial, one-party system of totalitarian power of the communist party, which lasted until the 1990s. In 1922, the Bolsheviks created a federal state (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) in which the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) played a dominant role. The rule of the secretary general of the ROC (b) / WKP (b) / CPSU, Joseph Stalin, led to the industrialization of the USSR, in the economy of which heavy industry and armaments played a major role. These changes, however, cost the lives of many millions of people - victims of hunger as a consequence of the forced collectivization of agriculture and the policy of terror. From the end of the 1970s, the USSR experienced a period of stagnation. In 1991, under the rule of Mikhail Gorbachev, after the Janjew coup, the USSR was dissolved under the Bialowieza Agreement (December 8, 1991) and since then Russia and the 14 existing union republics of the USSR form independent states.

Country Name

In 1991–1992, two equivalent names were introduced, Russia and the Russian Federation. Official names used