Seweryn Rzewuski


May 28, 2022

Seweryn Rzewuski of the Krzywda coat of arms, cryptic: S. R. S. D. G. M. W. K. I. K. Mci; S. R. S. D. GM. Envoy of Podolski Co-prisoner (born March 13, 1743 in Podhorce, died December 11, 1811 in Vienna) - field hetman of the Crown, major general of the Crown troops in 1760, one of the leaders of the Targowica Confederation, member of the Military Commission of Both Nations in 1792, staroste Doliński, Kowelski and Stuleński, political writer, speaker, poet, playwright.

Childhood and youth

His father was the later Grand Hetman of the Crown Wacław Rzewuski, and his mother was Anna née Lubomirska. He received his first lessons from Warsaw theatines. From 1754, Louis Antoine Caraccioli was the tutor of all young Rzewuski, and it was under his watchful care that they stayed outside Poland for almost 5 years (in 1755–1759 they visited Austria, Italy and France).

Political activity

On December 9, 1760, he was nominated major general of the Crown troops, shortly thereafter (1761) he was the starost of Dolina, and a little later also the starost of Stulno. Podole envoy to the Seym of 1762. As a deputy of the Podolian voivodeship to the convocation parliament, on May 7, 1764, he signed a manifesto declaring the parliamentary assembly held in the presence of Russian troops illegal. He signed the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski from the Podole voivodeship. He joined the Radom Confederation. In the appendix to the message of October 2, 1767 to the president of the College of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire, Nikita Panin, Russian envoy Nikolai Repnin described him as an envoy of the hostile implementation of Russian plans at the 1767 Seym, and an envoy of the Podolskie Voivodeship to the 1767 Seym. As a result of opposition to the demands of the Russian envoy, Nikolai Repnin, and his father were kidnapped (on the night of October 13-14, 1767) by the Russian army (General O. A. Igelström) and deported to Kaluga. He returned to Poland in January 1773, settled in Siedliska (Chełm land), and several months later (April 1774) he received the mace and the title of field-crown hetman from his father. In the following year (1775), he and his father received from the king as compensation for exile, a rich Kovel starosty, and the order of St. Stanisław (September 4, 1775). In 1775 he was awarded the Order of the White Eagle and the Order of Saint Stanislaus. Despite this, shortly thereafter, during the reforms of the Polish system in 1776 (when the hetman's power was severely limited), he fiercely opposed King Stanisław August Poniatowski and the Permanent Council. He was greedy and vain in his actions, he did not perform hetman functions, devoted to the economy and opposition activities. In 1788 he asked Berlin for help in winning a dictatorship for himself. He was a member of the confederation of the Four-Year Seym. During the Four Years' Sejm, he headed the Hetman's camp, hostile to any reforms. At that time, he published a number of political magazines. M. in. "On the succession to the throne in Poland" 1789, "Punkta do reformy the government" (1790), "On the Polish throne always elected evidence" 1790. He left for Vienna, where he gathered a camp of malcontents, reluctant to any changes. In 1791 he came to St.Petersburg to develop activities against the constitution of May 3 under the protection of Empress Catherine II. He was one of the initiators of the Targowica confederation, acting as its military commander. He was a counselor of the general confederation of the Crown in the Targowica confederation. In 1793, after disclosing the partition plans of Russia and Prussia, he left for Galicia and withdrew from political life. During the Kościuszko Uprising, the Supreme Criminal Court sentenced him to death by hanging, perpetual infamy, confiscation of property and loss of all offices. In the absence of the convict, the sentence was carried out in effigie on September 29, 1794. He died in Vienna in 1811. T.