United States

Article

August 13, 2022

United States of America, the United States, colloquially America (United States of America, USA; United States, US; America), until July 11, 1778. United States of America - a federal state in North America consisting of 50 states, bordering with Canada to the north, Mexico to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Arctic Ocean to the northwest and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. The third largest country in terms of population (after China and India), and fourth in terms of area (after Russia, Canada and China). It also includes non-state islands in the Pacific (Baker, Guam, Howland, Jarvis, Johnston, Kingman, Northern Mariana Islands, Midway, Palmyra, American Samoa, Wake) and in the Atlantic (Puerto Rico - the largest of them, formally associated with the United States - Virgin Islands, Navassa). The country's de facto territory is also the Guantánamo military base (in Cuba).

Geography

General Information

Area: total: 9 373 967 km² of land: 9.2 million km² water: 470 thous. km² Note: Data is for 50 states and the District of Columbia only Land borders: total length: 12,248 km border with Canada: 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), with Mexico: 3,326 km coastline: 19,924 km (excluding Pacific and Atlantic islands)

Climate

The main division into climate zones used in the Köppen climate classification system divides the United States meridially into the eastern and western parts. The boundary of the division runs along the Rocky Mountains. The climate of the eastern part changes with latitude. East to North (Great Lakes Region, North Dakota, Wisconsin, Michigan, New York State and all states east of New York and northern Pennsylvania) have a Dfb climate (humid continental climate with mild summer), then in the middle (eastern parts of South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, and Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri and southern Pennsylvania) have a Dfb climate (humid continental climate with hot summer) and in the south (Oklahoma, Kentucky, Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia , North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, eastern Texas, and Florida without the southern tip) have a Dfb (subtropical humid climate with no dry season and hot summer). The southern tip of Florida and Hawaii are distinguished by a tropical savannah climate (Aw). The climate of the western part of the United States is more complicated and depends to a greater extent on elevation above sea level and distance from the Pacific Ocean. The areas to the east of the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Mountains are in their rain shadow, which is why they are usually characterized by a cold, semi-dry steppe climate (BS). On the other hand, high-altitude areas in this part (western Colorado, Wyoming, western Montana and central Nevada) have a humid continental climate with mild summers, or the (highest) subarctic climate Dfc. The relatively low sea level in this area is dominated by a cold desert climate (BWh), and only the south along the Mexican border (from Las Vegas, Nevada to the south of Arizona and south-eastern California) has a subtropical desert climate (BWh). Alaska is dominated by a subarctic continental climate (Dfc) with slight portions of Dsc and Dwc, and an arctic, tundra climate at the northern extremities (ET).

Surface relief

The land area is shaped by the central plains, mountains to the west, hills and low mountains to the east; volcanic landscape in Hawaii. lowest point: Death Valley 86 m above sea level highest point: (Alaska) Denali (McKi