Szymon Marcin Kossakowski

Article

May 28, 2022

Szymon Juda Marcin Korwin-Kossakowski of Ślepowron coat of arms (born in 1741 in Szyły near Janów, died in Vilnius on April 25, 1794) - Lithuanian Grand Hetman in 1793, Lithuanian Field Hetman in 1792, Russian General in 1790, Senate counselor the general confederation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Targowica Confederation, member of the Grodno Confederation in 1793, the Bar Confederate in 1768, and the Kaunas cupbearer in 1763.

Curriculum vitae

He studied at the Jesuit College in Kaunas and at the University of Królewiec. He was a close associate of Charles Krystian Wettin, Prince of Courland, sharing with him the difficult moments in Mitawa in 1763, when he was expelled from the principality by the Russian army. In 1764 he was the elector of Stanisław August Poniatowski from the Kaunas poviat, but he became disenchanted with him when he did not get the desired starosty. Member of Parliament in Czaplica 1766 from the Kaunas poviat. At the Sejm of Repnin, he fiercely attacked the king. Later, he went on a parliamentary delegation to Russia to ask Catherine II to be a guarantor of the Polish political system. Too late, he realized his mistake, joined the Bar Confederation and started organizing an uprising in Lithuania. He became the general marshal of the Lithuanian confederation. In November 1768, pinned down by the Russian counteroffensive, he withdrew to Prussia. Then he went to Dresden, where he was one of the leaders of the Saxon party, which aimed at the dethronement of Stanisław August. He left for Turkey for anti-Russian agitation, claiming to be a Saxon envoy. There, he forged the sultan's letter to the General of Bar, in which the sultan allegedly called for an interregnum in Poland. On April 9, 1770, the Bar Confederates announced the dethronement of Stanisław August in Varna. Generality ordered the capture of Kossakowski by Kazimierz Pulaski. However, Kossakowski made his way to Lithuania, where he won many victories over the Russians. He formed one of the busiest bar divisions with a strength of 4,000 people. He even made a daring foray to Russia, to the Smolensk region, alerting the Russian garrisons in Pskov. He conducted the longest rally of the Bar Confederation, crossing Kurland, Prussia and Mazowsze to Greater Poland. It was then called Lithuanian Pulaski. In 1775 he reconciled with the king and became one of the leaders of the Russian party in the Commonwealth. In the years 1786–1788 he was a member of the Perpetual Council. In 1790, he joined the Russian army fighting the Turks in the Balkans with the rank of major-general. From October 1791, he conspired with Seweryn Rzewuski and Szczęsny Potocki in Jassy, ​​where the subsequent Targowica confederation was being prepared. In a letter to Catherine II, he wrote: I do not see and no one can see the general happiness of our country, only in the respect of this huge neighborly power, with its own interest, see us wise and happy, as a person whom the next centuries will lay between the wonders of nature and greatness. - N. Empress of all Russia. You do not have a lady who is more capable of treating the rights of humanity and the law of reasonable freedom and justice: the nations subjected to her experience and benefit from the scepter, laying and glorifying her in the wise qualities of a deity. He gave valuable comments about the condition of the Polish army to Russian generals who were to attack the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He postulated, inter alia, kidnapping of Tadeusz Kościuszko and Prince Józef Poniatowski. In 1792 he became the commander of the Russian corps which attacked Poland from the side of Połock. On June 25, 1792, in Vilnius, conquered by the Russians, he proclaimed himself the field commander of Lithuania. In January 1793, he reacted sharply to the invasion of Prussian troops into Greater Poland. He then threatened to call a mass mobilization, which even terrified the Russians. He even proposed joining Lithuania to Russia as a sovereign principality.