Italy, the Italian Republic (Italia, Repubblica Italiana) - a country located in South-Central Europe, on the Apennine Peninsula, a member of the European Union and many organizations, including: UN, NATO, belonging to the seven most industrialized and wealthy countries world - G7.
The name Italy comes from the Celtic tribe of Wolków who lived in southern France in antiquity (Gallia Narbonensis province). In the Germanic languages, the name of this people was adopted as Walh ("foreign"). Then it was borrowed by the Polish language in the form of Wałch or Wołch, which took the form of Italy on the basis of a phonetic rearrangement. Soon Italians began to be defined as the inhabitants of the entire Apennine Peninsula. In turn, the plural form of the expression of Italy was called the country occupying this peninsula. The name of the Balkan ethnic group - Wallachians - has the same etymology.
The name Italy or similar is used in Polish and in Sorbian (Włóska, Italian), and historically also in Czech (Vlachy). In other languages, the name of Italy (including Italian) is expressed in a more or less transformed form of the name Italia. In Poland, the term is also commonly used, but most often to describe the area of today's Italy in antiquity.
During the Iron Age, Italy was inhabited by the Ligurians and Sykulas, as well as by numerous other Italian, Celtic and Illyrian tribes. In antiquity, Italy came under the rule of the Romans. Before the Roman period, the territory of Italy was inhabited by Phoenicians and Greeks. From the Middle Ages to the Risorgimento, although the Apennine Peninsula was linguistically and culturally coherent, its history was composed of the history of independent republics and principalities as well as foreign possessions and spheres of influence. In 1861, the Italian lands were unified, resulting in the creation of the Kingdom of Italy, on which Victor Emmanuel II was enthroned. At the beginning of the 20th century, Italy became a fascist state.
World War II
During the Second World War, Benito Mussolini chose to remain neutral. He was not entirely sure whether to join the war, but the successes of the Third Reich convinced him to act quickly, as the French and British colonies (eg Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and India) would be quickly conquered. Therefore, on June 10, 1940, Italy joined the war on the side of Germany. The Italian attack stopped a few kilometers away in the area of Sidi Barrani. At the same time, the Kingdom of Italy, the Third Reich and the Empire of Great Japan signed the so-called Pact of three. On October 28, after the second Vienna arbitration, Mussolini and his troops entered Greece mainly as a result of their desire to implement the idea of restoring the Roman Empire. The Italian attack was repulsed, and the Greeks occupied half of Albania by the end of December 1940. At the same time, in Africa, the Italians were pushed as far as El Agheila. In February, the Afrika Korps under Erwin Rommel arrived. At El Alamein. In July 1943, the Allies landed in Sicily, and in May 1945 Italy was captured.
Fall of the monarchy
After World War II, in a constitutional referendum, the Italians opted for the change of the state system into a republic headed by the President of Italy.
Democratic system, republic with a bicameral parliament (five-year term):
Chamber of Deputies (630 seats)
Senate (315 seats + senators for life). Both houses of parliament are elected by universal, equal and direct elections by secret ballot. There are 27 artificially delineated constituencies for elections to the Chamber of Deputies, and regions are constituencies for Senate elections.
The President of the Republic is the head of state and is elected for a term of seven years by the Assembly