July 5, 2022

Extinction, extinction, extinction - the process of extinction of a species or other taxonomic group. Most often, the natural process associated with the existence of life on Earth and accompanying its existence from the very beginning. On a million-year scale, the rate of species extinction to extinction of one species is estimated every one to five years. However, this value is greatly influenced by the periodically following mass extinctions. Between them, the rate of extinction is low, estimated at the extinction of one species every few hundred years. The influence of human civilization explains the increased rate of extinction of species documented for several tens of thousands of years, especially in the last several hundred years. Nowadays, according to various estimates, from 5,000 to 500,000 species are dying out annually.

Causes of the Extinctions

There are various reasons that can directly or indirectly lead to the extinction of a species. The easiest way to talk about it is the inability to survive or reproduce in a given natural environment and the inability to move to a new one, where survival and reproduction would be possible. Extinction may occur suddenly, e.g. by toxic pollution of a habitat, or gradually, when a species loses the competition for food with another, stronger and better adapted species (for this reason, on average, three bird species die every year). Other reasons for the extinctions include: genetic and demographic causes, habitat degradation, displacement from the habitat (by humans, natural disasters, such as floods), diseases, competition, climatic and geological changes, Breakout (hunting, poaching, overfishing). Very often there is a synergistic interaction of various factors, e.g. a population reduced by hunting may be more easily displaced by competition by another population.

See also

the species has become extinct animals extinct in the wild the sixth disaster modern amphibian extinction resurrecting extinct species