Soviet Union

Article

May 28, 2022

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR, Soviet Union, also the Soviet Union, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, abbr. USSR, Russian: Советских Социалистических РеспубСлик; located in Eastern Europe as well as North and Central Asia, with the capital in Moscow, existing in the years 1922–1991. It had an area of ​​22 million km² and stretched from the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea to the Pacific. Nominally, the USSR was a federation of the Soviet national republics, in practice it was a country with a highly centralized power and economy. The state's political and economic system was a single-party dictatorship, ruled by the ROC (b) / WKP (b) / CPSU according to the concept of the so-called "The dictatorship of the proletariat." During the dictatorial rule of Joseph Stalin, a totalitarian system was introduced, which after his death (in 1953) turned into authoritarianism. Perestroika brought another change in the USSR's system of power, as a result of which the country (from 1990) was governed by a semi-presidential system. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established on December 30, 1922 (after the end of the civil war in Russia) under the founding treaty of the USSR concluded by the Bolsheviks jointly ruled but formally independent: the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR and the Transcaucasus SFSR. Among the 18 union republics that were part of the USSR at various times, only the Byelorussian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR had (apart from the USSR itself) international subjectivity and were founders of the United Nations, as well as members of most specialized organizations of the United Nations. The Russian SFSR played a dominant role throughout the history of the USSR. As the largest union republic, more than half of the country's population lived in it. The USSR ceased to exist as a result of the conclusion of the Białowieża Agreement (December 8, 1991) and the declaration on the dissolution of the USSR adopted in Moscow by the Council of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (December 26, 1991) [3]. The former union Soviet republics began to create independent states. Under the two treaties of Almaty (December 21, 1991), Russia enjoys a permanent seat on the USSR in the UN Security Council and all other international organizations [5]. At the same time, the Commonwealth of Independent States [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] was designated as the successor of the USSR and its international obligations. Some former Soviet republics continue to cooperate with the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union and other organizations.

Geography

In the period from the uprising (1922) to the outbreak of World War II (1939), the USSR bordered on Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Poland and Romania in Europe; Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China and Japan in Asia. The Mongolian People's Republic and the Tuvan People's Republic were the Soviet Union's puppet buffer states in Asia. After the end of World War II, the USSR had almost 20,000. kilometers of land border with twelve countries: Norway, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, North Korea and Japan.

Geographic maxima

The highest point - the Peak of Communism 7495 m above sea level The lowest point - Karagije Basin 132 m above sea level The main rivers - Ob-Irtysh, Amur, Lena, Yenisei, Volga The largest lakes - the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea (now almost completely dry), Baikal, Balkhash, Ladoga, Onega

The Soviet Union and the Soviet Union

Since the adjective советский (sowietskij) with the above-mentioned meaning appears in the original name of the country, the problem of reflecting the meaning of this name arose in the Polish language. For the official name of the origin country