October 13 is the 286th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (287th in leap years). 79 to finish the year.
0054 -- Roman Emperor Claudius dies of poison under mysterious circumstances.
0409 — Vandals and Alans cross the Pyrenees and appear in Hispania.
1307 - Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are arrested at dawn by King Philip the Beautiful, and then confess under torture to be heretics.
1775 — Continental Congress creates the Continental Navy (predecessor of the United States Navy).
1843—In New York City, the B'nai B'rith, the oldest Jewish service organization in the world, is founded.
1867 — The Central do Brasil Railroad reaches Entre Rios (today Três Rios) at the junction with the União e Indústria Highway.
1884 — Established the Greenwich meridian as a point of reference for determining time zones.
1885—The Georgia Institute of Technology is founded in Atlanta, Georgia.
1892 — Edward Emerson Barnard records the first comet discovered by photographic means.
1917 — The "Miracle of the Sun" is witnessed by around 70,000 people in Cova da Iria in Portugal.
1921 - The Soviet republics sign the Treaty of Kars to formalize the borders between Turkey and the southern Caucasus states.
1923 — Ankara becomes the capital of Turkey.
1930 — The Bishop of Leiria officially makes public the apparitions of Our Lady in Fátima.
1943—World War II: New Italian government joins allies and declares war on Germany.
1949 — Young Pioneers of China, a children's organization linked to the Communist Party of China, is officially founded.
1970 — Fiji is admitted as a UN Member State.
1972 — Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashes in the Andes Mountains. 28 people survive the accident. All but 16 succumb before the December 23 rescue.
1977 — Hijacking of Lufthansa flight 181 by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
1982 — The formation of the reservoir of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant begins, extinguishing the Sete Quedas.
2010 — The accident at the San José mine in Chile ends when all 33 trapped miners reach the surface after a record 69 days underground.
2016 — Maldives announces its decision to withdraw from the Commonwealth of Nations.
2018 — Hurricane Leslie arrives in Portugal as an extratropical cyclone with winds of 110 kilometers per hour, causing 15 deaths.
Prior to the 19th century
1162 — Eleanor of England (d. 1214).
1381 — Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel (d. 1415).
1453 — Edward of Westminster (d. 1471).
1474 — Mariotto Albertinelli, Italian painter (d. 1515).
1499 — Claudia of France, Queen of France (d. 1524).
1613 — Luísa de Gusmão, Queen of Portugal (d. 1666).
1709 — Bento Morganti, Portuguese writer (d. ?).
1713 — Allan Ramsay, British painter (d. 1784).
1818 — Henry Allon, British religious (d. 1892).
1821 — Rudolf Virchow, German physician (d. 1902).
1835 — Alphonse Milne-Edwards, French zoologist (d. 1900).
1857 — Paulo Marques, Brazilian journalist, novelist and playwright (d. 1884).
1862 — Mary Kingsley, ethnographer, scientific writer and British explorer (d. 1900).
1887 — Jozef Tiso, Slovak politician (d. 1947).
1905 — Coloman Braun-Bogdan, Romanian footballer and football coach (d. 1983).
1916 — Edu da Gaita, Brazilian musician (d. 1982).
1921 — Yves Montand, French actor and singer (d. 1991).
1922 — Gilberto Mendes, erudite composer and Brazilian avant-garde music (d. 2016).
1925 — Margaret Thatcher, British policy (d. 2013).
1931 — Raymond Kopa, French footballer (d. 2017).
1932 — Jack Colvin, American actor (d. 2005).
1936 — Willy Gonser, Brazilian sports announcer