1744 (MDCCXLIV, in Roman numerals) was a leap year, with 366 days, of the Gregorian Calendar, its dominical letters were E and D, it had 53 weeks, started on a Wednesday, and ended on a Thursday.
The British discover the Palhal mines, in Ribeira de Fráguas.
End of the reign of Ngawang Gyaltshen, Desi Druk of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
Beginning of the reign of Sherab Wangchuck, Desi Druk of the Kingdom of Bhutan, reigned until 1763.
End of the works started in 1719 on the Solar of the wealthy owner Manuel Avelar, which is currently the Municipality of Velas.
5 October – A tropical cyclone causes large floods in the Azores causing floods, on the island of Pico, in Prainha do Galeão 7 people died dragged into the sea; in Prainha do Norte, 6 people and another 5 perished in São Roque do Pico. On the island of São Miguel there were also deaths in Água de Pau and Fenais da Ajuda.
February 23 – Mayer Amschel Rothschild, German banker of Jewish origin (d. 1812).
November 22 – Abigail Smith Adams, Former First Lady of the United States (d. 1818).
? - Johann III Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1807)Jean Baptiste Lamarck
? - Inácio José de Alvarenga Peixoto - Brazilian writer and politician. (d. 1793)
February 29 – John Theophilus Desaguliers, French philosopher (b. 1683).
April 25 – Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer.