1858 (MDCCCLVIII, in Roman numerals) was a common year of the 19th century of the current Gregorian Calendar, of the Age of Christ, and its Sunday letter was C, totaling 52 weeks, starting on a Friday and ending also on a Friday. -fair.
The second railroad in Brazil is inaugurated, the first stretch (31.5 km) of the Railroad from Recife to São Francisco, between Recife and Vila do Cabo (currently the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho), in the state from Pernambuco.
The Möbius ribbon is discovered by August Ferdinand Möbius.
William Parker Foulke discovers the first hadrosaur skeleton.
Arrival of German immigrants to Colônia Dom Pedro II in Juiz de Fora.
The initial section of the E.F. Dom Pedro II (future Central Brazil), between downtown Rio de Janeiro and Queimados.
The colony of Teutônia in RS is founded by German immigrants.
Vila Monte-Mor or Novo d'América is elevated to the category of Municipality, which is renamed Baturité on August 9th.
The village of Agua da Rosa was born, later called Aparecida, or district of Aparecida de São Manuel, in the city of São Manuel (It did not exist at the time).
Another Brazilian railroad entered service, the Estrada de Ferro D. Pedro II, built with the objective of transporting coffee from Vale do Paraíba to the port of Rio de Janeiro.
The Geneva Conservatory of Music that François Bartholoni had built is open to the public.
The bell of the Elizabeth Tower (Big Ben) is cast by George Mears.
The apparitions of the Virgin Mary take place in the Massabielle cave, in Lourdes, France, to a 14-year-old girl named Bernadette Soubirous.
19 January - By the action of a storm, the Portuguese schooner called "Palmira" and the boat "Desengano" are shipwrecked in the Bay of Angra.
January 23 - By the action of a storm the English schooner "Daring" is shipwrecked in the Bay of Angra.
May 11 - Minnesota becomes the 32nd US state.
May 17 - Founded the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul.
June 6 - Through provincial Law 880, Vila Nova de Formiga is elevated to a municipality, with the name of Formiga.
July 1 — Joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's papers on evolution for the Linnean Society of London.
2 November – Visit of the Infante D. Luís I of Portugal to the island of Faial, Azores.
March 18 - Rudolf Diesel, German engineer (d. 1913).
April 15 - Émile Durkheim - French thinker, founder of functionalism (d. 1917).
April 23 - Max Planck, German physicist (d. 1947).
April 30 - José de Camargo Barros, Brazilian Catholic bishop (d. 1906).
July 9 - Franz Boas, German anthropologist (d. 1942).
August 15 – Michael Hainisch, was an Austrian politician and president of Austria from 1920 to 1928 (d. 1940).
August 27 - Giuseppe Peano, Italian mathematician (d. 1932).
September 18 - Pedro Nel Ospina, President of the Republic of Colombia from 1922 to 1926 (d. 1927)
October 27 – Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States from 1901 to 1909, Nobel Peace Prize 1906 (d. 1919).
? - Ricardo Jorge, Portuguese physician and researcher, (d. 1939).
? - Giovanni Battista Torriglia, Italian painter, (d. 1937).
January 30 - Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Dutch naturalist (b. 1778).
May 4 – Aimé Bonpland, French physician, explorer and botanist (b. 1773).
May 18 - Helena of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Duchess of Orléans and Princess Royal of France (b. 1814).
December 2 - Francisco do Monte Alverne, official preacher of the Empire of Brazil.