1859 (MDCCCLIX, in Roman numerals) was a common year of the 19th century of the current Gregorian Calendar, from the Age of Christ, and its Sunday letter was B (52 weeks), started on a Saturday and ended also on a Saturday.
Riemann publishes his hypothesis.
Charles Robert Darwin publishes his book "On the Origin of Species" (On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life).
Dom Pedro II visits Goiana, in the state of Pernambuco.
February 14 - Oregon becomes the 33rd US state.
25 April - Construction of the Suez Canal begins.
August 12 - Arrival of Reverend Ashbel Green Simonton, North American missionary, at the port of Rio de Janeiro; initiating the Presbyterian Church of Brazil, a religious institution that maintains a relationship as an aid to the state in education and health, such as, among others, the Mackenzie Presbyterian University and several hospitals.
September 2 - Carrington Event: Biggest solar storm on record.
September 24 - Dom Antonio Joaquim de Mello, 7th diocesan bishop of São Paulo, makes a pastoral visit to the Parish Church of Vila de Araraquara (SP).
Charles Dickens publishes A Tale of Two Cities novel of historical reflection on the revolutionary period in France.
October 31, by force of a decree and the diligence of Dr. José Pereira da Cunha da Silveira e Sousa, the creation of the Curato do Toledo with effect on October 31 is published in the Government Gazette of November 2 of the same year.
November - Shipwreck of the Portuguese Patacho, recorded on the island of São Miguel “Falcão” which crashes against the rocks off the coast of the island of Santa Maria.
January 27 - William II, German Emperor and King of Prussia (d. 1941).
February 3rd - Urbano Santos, Brazilian politician and Vice President of Brazil between 1914 and 1918 (d. 1922)
February 10 - Alexandre Millerand, president of France from 1920 to 1924 and prime minister in 1920 (d. 1943).
February 19 - Svante August Arrhenius, winner of the 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (d. 1927).
April 8 - Michel Oreste, president of Haiti from 1913 to 1914 (d. 1918).
April 8 - Edmund Husserl, philosopher (d. 1938)
May 22 - Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, British writer and physician (d. 1930)
14th of July - Leolinda Figueiredo Daltro (d. 1935)
August 15 - Charles Comiskey, important figure in American baseball (d. 1931).
October 4 - Clóvis Beviláqua, Brazilian jurist, author, in 1900, of the project that culminated in the Brazilian Civil Code of 1916 (d. 1944)
October 9 - Alfred Dreyfus, French officer, Dreyfus case center (d. 1935)
October 20 - John Dewey, philosopher (d. 1952)
November 23 - Billy The Kid, American gunman who participated in the "Lincoln County War" in New Mexico (d. 1881)
December 13 - António César Vieira, Portuguese journalist (d. ??)
December 15 - Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof, Polish ophthalmologist and philologist, initiator of the Esperanto language (d. 1917)
December 29 - Venustiano Carranza, President of Mexico from 1917 to 1920 (d. 1920).
November 22 - Fusajiro Yamauchi founder of Nintendo Company Limited (d. 1940)
January 17th - Francisco de Melo da Gama de Araújo e Azevedo, Field Marshal and Governor of Diu, (n. May 16, 1773).
January 29 - William Hickling Prescott, American historian (b. 1796)
May 5 - Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, German mathematician (b. 1805)
May 6 - Alexander von Humboldt, German naturalist (b. 1769)
July 8 - Oscar I of Sweden, King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to 1859 (b. 1799)
September 28 - Carl Ritter, German geographer (b. 1779)
December 31 — Francisco de Paula Ferreira da Costa, Portuguese memoirist writer (b. 1788)