1861 (MDCCCLXI, in Roman numerals) was a common year of the 19th century of the current Gregorian calendar, from the Age of Christ, its Sunday letter was F (52 weeks), it began on a Tuesday and ended also on a Tuesday. fair.
The Industrial Exhibition of Porto is inaugurated, at Palácio da Bolsa.
Year of creation of the machine gun.
End of reign of Sherab Tharchin, king (druk desi) of Bhutan, who reigned since 1856.
Beginning of the reign of Phuntsho Namgyal, druk desi of Bhutan, who would reign until January 1864.1 — Liberal forces supporting Benito Juárez enter Mexico City.
January 29 — Kansas becomes the 34th US state.
February 23 -- US President Abraham Lincoln secretly arrives in Washington to assume the presidency after he suffered a botched bombing in Baltimore.
February 19 - In the Russian Empire, Tsar Alexander II carries out the Emancipating Reform, which ended the servitude to which the Russian peasantry was subject.
March 4—Abraham Lincoln is sworn in as the 16th President of the United States of America.
March 17 - Victor Emmanuel II assumes the title of King of Italy, with the support of the deputies of all the States who recognized his authority, taking over the government of all reunited Italy.
April 12—Start of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
24th of May — The Central Commission on December 1st, 1640, is founded in Lisbon, the institution that gave rise to the current Historical Society of the Independence of Portugal.
November 25 — A friendship treaty signed between Portugal and China, negotiated by Isidoro Guimarães in Beijing.
January 21 — Roberto Landell de Moura, Brazilian priest and scientist (d. 1928)
February 24 — Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (d. 1948)
February 27 — Rudolf Steiner, creator of Anthroposophy (d. 1925)
March 19 — Cruz e Souza, Brazilian poet (d. 1898)
August 9 — Diego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños, president of Nicaragua from 1921 to 1923 (d. 1923).
September 24 — Walter Simons, was a German politician and President of the Weimar Republic in 1925 (d. 1937).
October 5 — Ismael Montes, president of Bolivia from 1904 to 1909 and from 1913 to 1917 (d. 1933).
October 21 - Manuel Said Ali Ida, Brazilian philologist (d. 1953)
November 2 — Braz do Amaral, Brazilian physician and historian (d. 1949).
November 7 — Tomás Regalado, president of El Salvador from 1898 to 1903 (d. 1906)
November 10 — Robert T. A. Innes, British-South African astronomer (d. 1933).
December 15—Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, 3rd President of Finland (d. 1944).
Georges Méliès, filmmaker (d. 1938).
June 6 — Count of Cavour, Piedmontese statesman (b. 1819)
November 11 — King Pedro V of Portugal (b. 1837)
December 14 — Alberto de Saxe-Coburgo-Gota, husband and consort of Queen Victoria (b. 1819)
Abdul Mejide I, n. 1823, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.