June 23


July 6, 2022

June 23 is the 174th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (175th in leap years). There are 191 left to finish the year.

Historical events

0229 – Sun Quan proclaims himself Emperor of East Wu. 1305 – A peace treaty between Flemish and French is signed at Athis-sur-Orge. 1314 – First Scottish War of Independence: The Battle of Bannockburn, south of Stirling, begins. 1483 – Pope Sixtus IV excommunicates and interdicts the Republic of Venice. 1532 – Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France sign a secret treaty against Emperor Charles V. 1565 – Dragute Arrais, naval commander of the Ottoman Empire, dies during the Siege of Malta. 1683 – William Penn signs a treaty of friendship with the Lenapes Indians in Pennsylvania. 1794 – Catherine the Great of Russia allows Jews to live in Kiev. 1810 – John Jacob Astor forms the Pacific Fur Company. 1812 – Anglo-American War of 1812: Britain repeals restrictions on American trade, thus eliminating one of the main reasons for going to war. 1828 – King Miguel I of Portugal usurps the crown of his niece, Queen Maria II of Portugal, starting the Liberal Wars. 1868 – Typewriter: Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for an invention he called the "Type-Writer". 1894 – Foundation of the International Olympic Committee at Sorbona, Paris, on the initiative of Baron Pierre de Coubertin. 1914 Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa takes Zacatecas from Victoriano Huerta. The 7th republican government takes office in Portugal, headed by the president of the Ministry Bernardino Machado. 1940 Inauguration of the Portuguese World Exhibition, in Lisbon. Adolf Hitler takes a 3-hour Paris architecture tour with architect Albert Speer and sculptor Arno Breker on his only visit to the city. 1956 – French National Assembly takes the first step in creating the French Community, passing the Lei-cadre Defferre, transferring a series of powers from Paris to elected territorial governments in French West Africa. 1959 – Convicted Manhattan Project spy Klaus Fuchs is released after just nine years in prison and allowed to emigrate to Dresden, East Germany, where he resumes his scientific career. 1961 – Cold War: The Antarctic Treaty goes into effect, which establishes Antarctica as a scientific reserve and bans military activity on the continent. 1969 – IBM announces that starting in January 1970, its software and services will be priced separately from hardware, thus creating the modern software industry. 1991 – Moldova declares its independence from the USSR. 1996 – The Nintendo 64 home video game console is first released in Japan, with Nintendo selling 32.93 million units worldwide. 2001 – The 8.4 Mw earthquake in southern Peru shakes the coast of Peru with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A destructive tsunami followed, leaving at least 74 dead and 2,687 injured. 2016 – United Kingdom approves in a referendum its exit from the European Union, 52% to 48%.


Prior to the 19th century

47 BC — Ptolemy XV Caesarion, last Ptolemaic pharaoh (d. 30 BC). 1433 – Francis II, Duke of Brittany (d. 1488). 1456 – Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scots (d. 1486). 1534 – Oda Nobunaga, Japanese daimyo (d. 1582). 1596 – Johan Banér, Swedish soldier (d. 1641). 1654 – Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst (d. 1724). 1668 – Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher and historian (d. 1744). 1708 – Maria Leszczyńska, queen of France and Navarre (d. 1768). 1763 – Josephine de Beauharnais, Empress of the French (d. 1814).

19th century

1804 – August Borsig, German businessman (d. 1854). 1824 – Carl Reinecke, German composer, teacher and pianist (d. 1910). 1826 — Louis Babel, r.