Abolhassan Bani-Sadr (in Parsi, سیِّدابو الحسن بنیصدر; also transliterated as Abū al-Ḥasan Banī-Ṣadr; Hamadan, March 22, 1933 – Paris, October 9, 2021) was an Iranian politician who served as president of his country. from 1980 to 1981, forming a coalition government to govern the country. During his tenure, he faced a crisis with the United States and the Iraqi invasion.
After the confrontation with the religious hierarchy [[Shi'ites], which won the approval of Mohammad-Ali Rajai as prime minister, he was forced to leave the country in September 1981, into exile in Paris. He then formed the National Resistance Council for the Liberation and Independence of Iran.
Beginning of life
Abolhassan Bani-Sadr was born in the city of Hamadan on March 22, 1933. His father was close to Ruhollah Khomeini and was an ayatollah.
In the 1960s, he participated in the student movement in opposition to Shah Reza Pahlevi. He was arrested twice and wounded during a rebellion in 1963. He fled to France. He studied Finance and Economics at the Sorbonne and joined the Iranian resistance group led by Ayatollah Khomeini. He returned to Iran along with Khomeini when the revolution was starting in February 1979. He wrote a book on Islamic finance, whose title, Eghtesad Tohidi, is an Arabic phrase that roughly translates as "The Economy of Monotheism."
After the Iranian Revolution, he became Deputy Minister of Finance on February 4, 1979, remaining in office until February 27, 1979. After the resignation of the Interim Minister of Finance from the Provisional Government, Ali Ardalan, on February 27, 1979 , Bani-Sadr was appointed to the post by Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan. On November 12, 1979 he was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, replacing Ebrahim Yazdi, in the government led by the Council of the Islamic Revolution, after the resignation of the interim government.
After the death of Mahmoud Taleghani, Bani-Sadr was elected President of the Council, remaining in that position until he was elected President of the Republic.
Bani-Sadr was not a Muslim cleric, and Khomeini had insisted that clerics should not run for government office. In the election of January 25, 1980, Bani-Sadr was elected president, with 78.9% of the votes, for a four-year term, and was sworn in on February 4 of the same year. Khomeini, however, remained Iran's supreme leader, with the constitutional right to fire the president. The inauguration ceremonies were held at the hospital where Khomeini was recovering from a heart attack. In August and September 1980, Bani-Sadr survived two helicopter accidents near the Iranian border with Iraq. On June 10, 1981, during the Iran-Iraq War, Bani-Sadr was appointed commander-in-chief of the armed forces by Khomeini. Shortly thereafter, he would be removed from the role that would be exercised by the ayatollah himself.
On June 21, 1981, the Majlis (Iranian Parliament) declared the impeachment of Bani-Sadr in his absence, for allegedly upsetting the ruling clerics, in particular Mohammad Beheshti, then head of the judicial system. Khomeini signed impeachment the next day. Even before that, the Revolutionary Guards had surrounded the presidential buildings and gardens and arrested the editors of a newspaper closely linked to Bani-Sadr. In the days that followed, several of his closest friends were executed, including Hossein Navab, Rashid Sadrolhefazi and Manouchehr Massoudi. Ayatollah Montazeri was among the few people in the government who then supported Bani-Sadr. But soon afterwards Montazeri would also be stripped of his powers.
At the same time, the Iranian government banned all political parties except the Islamic Republic Party. Government forces arrested members of other parties