July 6, 2022

Afghanistan (in Persian and pasto: افغانستان, Afġānistān), officially emirate Islamic of Afghanistan (in pasto: د اسلامي اسلامي امارت, from Afġānistān Islāmī imārāt and in Persian: امارت افغانستان افغانستان, imârat-i Islamī-yi Afġânistân), is one landlocked, mountainous country located in central Asia, being at the crossroads between South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia. It borders Pakistan to the south and east, Iran to the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north and China to the northeast. Occupying 652,230 km², being the 41st largest in the world by area, Afghanistan is predominantly mountainous, with plains in the north and southwest. Kabul is the capital and largest city, with an estimated population of 4.6 million, making it the 37th most populous country in the world, made up mainly of Pashto, Tajik, Hazara and Uzbek ethnicities. The territory of Afghanistan was an essential point for the Silk Road and for human migration. Archaeologists have found evidence of human presence dating back to the Middle Paleolithic (c. 50,000 BC). Urban civilization may have started between 3000 and 2000 BC. The country is in an important geostrategic location linking the Middle East with Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, having been home to many peoples through the ages. The land has witnessed many military campaigns since antiquity: the most notable by Alexander the Great, Chandragupta Maurya, Genghis Khan, the Soviet Union and, more recently, the United States and NATO. It was also the birthplace of several local dynasties such as the Greco-Bactrians, Kushanas, Saffarids, Gasnevids, Gurids, Timurids, Mughals and many others who created their own empires.[citation needed]Afghanistan's modern political history begins in 1709. , with the rise of the Pashto (or Pashto) when the Hotaki dynasty was created in Kandahar, followed by Ahmad Shah Durrani, rising to power in 1747. The capital of Afghanistan was transferred in 1776 from Kandahar to Kabul and part of the Afghan Empire was ceded to neighboring empires in 1893. At the end of the 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the great game between the British and Russian empires. This historical circumstance, combined with the country's mountainous terrain, prevented imperialist powers from dominating the country, but also resulted in low economic development. After the Third Anglo-Afghan War and the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi in 1919, the country regained control of its foreign policy with the British. After the Marxist revolution of 1978 and the Soviet invasion in 1979, a war broke out between government forces supported by Soviet troops and mujahideen rebels, supported by the United States, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and other Muslim countries. In that conflict, more than a million Afghans lost their lives, many of them victims of landmines. After the victory of the rebels, in 1992, a civil war began, between different rebel groups, which was won by the Taliban. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, a new conflict began, resulting from the intervention of US forces in the country. In December 2001 the United Nations Security Council authorized the creation of the International Security Assistance Force to help maintain security in Afghanistan and assist the administration of President Hamid Karzai. The twenty-year war between the government and the Taliban reached its climax with the Taliban offensive in 2021 and the consequent fall of Kabul. Decades of war have made Afghanistan the most dangerous country in the world, including the title of biggest producer of refugees and asylum seekers. While the international community is rebuilding a torn Afghanistan