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Quran (Arabic: القرآن, transl. al-Qurʾān, lit. "the recitation") or Koran (a form considered wrong by some linguists and not present in some reference dictionaries) is the holy book of Islam. Muslims believe that the Qur'an is the literal word of God (Allah) revealed to the prophet Mohammed (Muhammad) over a period of twenty-three years. The word Quran is derived from the Arabic verb which means to declaim or recite; Quran is therefore a "recitation" or something that must be recited.
It is one of the most read and published books in the world. It is widespread practice in most Muslim societies that the Qur'an is not sold, but given. A patron of the United States, such as Thomas Jefferson, had the book in his collection of about ten thousand volumes.
Name in Portuguese
There are two commonly used variants of the book name: "Quran" and "Quran". It is sometimes claimed that since the prefix "al-" designates the definite article in Arabic, its use would be unnecessary. However, in the many Portuguese words of Arabic origin with "al-" in their origin, such as "almanac" or "sugar", the particle has not been suppressed, and even less so in proper names like "Almada" or "Algarve". José Pedro Machado notes that the word Koran appears in Portuguese documents from the 13th century, unlike the Koran form, which was recently imported. The Houaiss Dictionary, which alludes to the argument that "al-" is "unnecessary" because it corresponds to the Arabic article, confirms the appearance of "Qur'an" in the 13th century and its constant use in the following centuries. The Houaiss claims that "Koran" is a French import in the late 19th century, immediately criticized by purists. The French term itself appeared only in the 17th century. The Portuguese site Ciberdúvidas da Lingua Portuguesa considers only the form "Alcorão" acceptable, invoking Rebelo Gonçalves and Rodrigo de Sá Nogueira. The Brazilian website Sua Lingua, edited by Prof. Cláudio Moreno does not condemn the word "Quran", but defends the preference for "Quran". Allegedly, the first written version of the book was found in Yemen and destroyed by Saudi Arabia during an attack on the country in 2015.
Structure of the Qur'an
The Qur'an is organized into 114 chapters, called surahs, divided into books, sections, parts and verses. 92 chapters are considered to have been revealed to the prophet Mohammed in Mecca, and 22 in Medina. The chapters are arranged approximately according to their size and not according to the chronological order of the revelation. Each sura can in turn be subdivided into verses (ayat). The number of verses is 6536 or 6600, depending on how you count them.
The major surah is the second, (The Cow), with 286 verses; the minor surahs have only three verses.
Chapters are traditionally identified more by names than numbers. These were named after distinctive words or words that appear at the beginning of the text, such as A Vaca, A Abelha, O Figo or A Aurora. However, it is unusual for the content of the sura to be related to the title of the chapter.
The chronological ordering of the Qur'an chapters is of interest not only to historians, given many of the revelations are linked to episodes in the life of Muhammad, but also to religious ones, given that the contradictions of the Qur'an are resolved by giving primacy to the most recent suras - this is the doctrine of revocation (or abrogation) fixed in the Holy Book itself In addition to those of Muslim clerics, in more recent times several ordinations have been proposed for example by Theodor Nöldeke, Richard Bell, Mehdi Bazargan, and Régis Blachère. An English translation of the Koran by J.M. Rodwell, ap