August 12, 2022

Germany (German: Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, AFI: [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌblik ˈdɔʏtʃlant] listen), is a country located in Central Europe. It is bordered on the north by the North Sea, Denmark and the Baltic Sea, on the east by Poland and Czechia, on the south by Austria and Switzerland and on the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. The territory of Germany covers 357,021 square kilometers and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. With 82.8 million inhabitants, as of December 31, 2015, the country has the largest population in the European Union and is also home to the third largest population of international migrants in the world. Germanic, was known and documented by the Romans before the year 100. From the 10th century, the German territories formed the central part of the Holy Roman Empire, which lasted until 1806. During the 16th century, northern Germany became the center of the Protestant Reformation. As a modern nation-state, the country was first unified as a result of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. In 1949, after World War II, Germany was divided into two states, West Germany, officially the "Republic of of Germany", and "East Germany", officially the German Democratic Republic, along the Allied occupation lines. Germany was reunified in 1990. West Germany was one of the founding members of the European Community (EC) in 1957, which later became the European Union in 1993. The country is part of the Schengen area and has adopted the European currency , the euro, since it was introduced in 1999. Germany is a federal parliamentary republic of sixteen states (in German Länder). The capital and largest city of the country is Berlin, located in the northeast of the German territory. The country is a member of the United Nations, NATO, G8, G20, OECD and WTO. It is a major power with the fourth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the fifth largest in purchasing power parity. It is the second largest exporter and the second largest importer of goods. In absolute terms, Germany allocates the second largest annual development aid budget in the world, while ranking sixth in military expenditure. The country has developed a high standard of living and established a comprehensive social security system. Germany occupies a key position in European affairs and maintains a number of close partnerships on a global level. The country is also recognized as a scientific and technological leader in various domains.


The term "Germany" derives from the French Allemagne - land of the Alemanni - in reference to the Germanic people of the same name who lived in the current border region between France and Germany and who during the 5th century crossed the River Rhine and invaded Roman Gaul. The country is also known as Germania, which derives from the Latin Germania — land of the Germans.


Germanic peoples and Christianization of Germania

It is assumed that the ethnogenesis of the Germanic peoples took place during the Nordic Bronze Age or, at the latest, during the pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and northern Germany, the "tribes" began, in the 1st century BC, to expand south, east and west and came into contact with the Celtic peoples of Gaul, as well as with Iranian peoples. , Balts and Slavs. Little is known about Germanic history prior to this, except through their interactions with the Roman Empire, etymological research, and archaeological finds. Germania (a term used by the Romans to define a territory that started at the River Rhine and went all the way to the Urals), and it was during this period that the Germanic tribes