Baccalaureate

Article

July 6, 2022

The bacharelato (European Portuguese) or bacharelado (Brazilian Portuguese) is an academic degree with different characteristics depending on the time and country. The holder of a bachelor's degree is called a bachelor or bachelor. Traditionally, until the 19th century, the bachelor's degree was awarded to students who successfully completed all the subjects of a higher course at a university. To obtain the next degree - that of licentiate - they needed to present and defend a thesis successfully. Nowadays, in most countries where it exists, the baccalaureate corresponds to the degree obtained after successfully completing the first cycle or stage of a higher education course. In other countries, however, it only corresponds to the diploma of completion of secondary education of official graduation - and, which will give possibilities to continue the university course.

In Brazil

In Brazil, the bachelor's degree is awarded at the undergraduate level in most areas of human knowledge, including Exact Sciences (Engineering, Physics, Mathematics, Statistics, Chemistry, etc.), Human Sciences (Science of Religion, Letters, Philosophy, History, Psychology, Theology, etc.), Applied Social Sciences (Law, Sociology, Anthropology, Political Science, Economic Sciences, Accounting Sciences, Administration, Information Management, Public Management, Information Science, Librarianship, Archival Science, etc.), Health Sciences (Physical Education, Pharmacy, Biology, Speech Therapy, Dentistry, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Nursing, etc.), Nautical Sciences (Nautical or Machinery) and Earth Sciences (Geography, Oceanography, Geology, etc.), which are normally obtained in higher education courses that can last from three to six years, with extensions of more years with specializations, masters, doctorates and post-docs. Some courses offer two or more qualifications, such as the Licentiate and the Baccalaureate itself, which varies from institution to institution. For this reason, some last nine to ten academic semesters on average, with vacation courses that accelerate graduation. They can be offered at isolated colleges, university centers and large universities (more than two university centers). With the enactment of Law No. 13,270, of April 13, 2016, undergraduate courses in medicine no longer grant the degree of "Bachelor of Medicine", thus having, the graduate in this sphere of knowledge, in his diploma, only the denomination "Doctor". In Brazil there are currently around 2,359 universities offering bachelor's degree courses.

Professional Title

In Brazil, as a rule, the completion of the baccalaureate course gives graduates access to the prerogatives of various regulated professions, requiring simple registration with the class councils. Bachelors in Business Administration, Economics, Librarianship, Engineering, Agronomy, among others, are examples of this. There are, however, two exceptions to this rule, which are bachelor's degrees in Legal Sciences or Law and in Accounting Sciences or Accounting. In these two cases, after completing the baccalaureate, it will be necessary to take an admission exam to the professional category, namely:

Accounting

With the presidential sanction of Law 12,249 on June 11, 2010, bachelors in accounting sciences will only be enrolled in the professional staff of the Federal Accounting Council (CFC), the regulatory and supervisory body of the accounting profession in Brazil, and will be able to legally exercise the accountant profession after passing a sufficiency exam carried out by the Regional Accounting Councils. Bachelors in accounting sciences who do not pass the exam and who are not registered on the board are, therefore, prohibited from performing any of the activities provided for private accountants by Decree-Le