January 26, 2022

Bolivia (European Portuguese pronunciation: [buˈlivjɐ]; Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation: [boˈliviɐ]; Spanish: Bolivia, pronounced: [boˈliβja]; Quechua: Buliwya; Aymara: Wuliwya; Guarani: Volívia), officially Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Plurinational State of Bolivia; in Quechua: Buliwya Mamallaqta; in Aymara: Wuliwya Suyu; in Guarani: Tetã Volívia), is a country located in the center-west of South America. and east, Paraguay and Argentina to the south, and Chile and Peru to the west. Prior to European colonization, the Bolivian Andean region was part of the Inca empire—the largest empire in the pre-Columbian era. The Spanish empire invaded and conquered this region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was called Alto Peru or Charcas and was under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru, which encompassed most of the Spanish South American colonies. After declaring independence in 1809, sixteen years of war followed before the establishment of the republic, instituted by Simón Bolívar, on August 6, 1825. Since then, the country has experienced periods of political instability, dictatorships and economic problems. Bolivia is a democratic republic, divided into nine departments. Geographically, it has two distinct regions, the altiplano to the west and the plains to the east, whose northern part belongs to the Amazon basin and the southern part to the Rio de la Plata Basin, of which the Bolivian Chaco is part. It is a developing country, with an average Human Development Index (HDI) and a poverty rate that reaches around 60% of the population. Among its main economic activities, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and production goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals and refined petroleum stand out. Bolivia is very rich in minerals, especially tin. The Bolivian population, estimated at 10 million inhabitants, is multiethnic, with Amerindians, mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although Aymara and Quechua are also common. In addition, 34 other indigenous languages ​​are official. The large number of different cultures in Bolivia has contributed to a great diversity in areas such as art, cuisine, literature and music.


The Bolivian state was founded under the name of República Bolívar in honor of its liberator, Simón Bolívar. Subsequently, the proposal of the deputy of Potosí, priest Manuel Martín Cruz, was modified, who argued with the following sentence: "If from Rômulo, Rome; from Bolívar, Bolivia". The new republic officially adopted the name Bolivia on October 3, 1825. Likewise, the Deliberative Assembly appointed the liberator Bolívar as the first president of the republic, who called her his favorite daughter.


Pre-Columbian era

The Bolivian territory has been inhabited for over 12,000 years. There, several cultures were formed, mainly in the Andes, especially the Tiwanaku culture and the Aymara kingdoms after the Wari expansion. These kingdoms were in turn annexed to the Inca empire in the 13th century. The Tiwanaku culture developed around the eponymous ceremonial center near Lake Titicaca. Its foundation probably took place before the year 300. Later, the Inca culture established a vast empire in the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of the Spaniards. During this century, Bolivia was occupied by several Aymara-speaking groups (Collas, Pacajes, Lupacas, Omasuyos), especially the Collas, who dominated a vast territory and fought with the Quechua speakers of Cusco for control of the region. . The Collas were defeated by the Inca Pachacuti, who seized almost the entire Bolivian plateau. Bolivia constituted, during

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