Brazil

Article

January 26, 2022

Brazil (locally [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (? listen), is the largest country in South America and the Latin American region, being the fifth largest in the world in territorial area (equivalent to 47.3% of the South American territory), with 8,510,345,538 km², and sixth in population (with more than 213 million inhabitants). It is the only country in America where the majority of Portuguese is spoken and the largest Portuguese-speaking country on the planet, in addition to being one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to the strong immigration from different parts of the world. Its current Constitution, enacted in 1988, conceives of Brazil as a presidential federative republic, formed by the union of the 26 states, the Federal District and the 5,570 municipalities. with all other South American countries, except Chile and Ecuador, being limited to the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; northwest by Colombia; to the west by Bolivia and Peru; to the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and to the south by Uruguay. Several archipelagos form part of the Brazilian territory, such as Atol das Rocas, the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Fernando de Noronha (the only one inhabited by civilians) and Trindade and Martim Vaz. Brazil is also home to a diversity of wildlife, ecosystems and vast natural resources in a wide variety of protected habitats. The territory that currently forms Brazil was officially discovered by the Portuguese on April 22, 1500, in an expedition led by Pedro Alvares Cabral. According to some historians such as Antonio de Herrera and Pietro d'Anghiera, the meeting of the territory would have been three months earlier, on January 26, by the Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, during an expedition under his command. The region, then inhabited by indigenous Amerindians divided among thousands of different ethnic and linguistic groups, belonged to Portugal by the Treaty of Tordesilhas, and became a colony of the Portuguese Empire. The colonial bond was broken, in fact, when in 1808 the capital of the kingdom was transferred from Lisbon to the city of Rio de Janeiro, after French troops commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Portuguese territory. In 1815, Brazil becomes part of a united kingdom with Portugal. Dom Pedro I, the first emperor, proclaimed the country's political independence in 1822. Initially independent as an empire, during which time it was a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, Brazil became a republic in 1889, due to a military coup led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca (the first president), although a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress, had existed since the ratification of the first Constitution in 1824. Since the beginning of the republican period, democratic governance was interrupted by long periods of until a democratically elected civilian government took power in 1985, with the end of the military dictatorship. The Brazilian nominal GDP was the twelfth largest in the world and the eighth by purchasing power parity (PPC) in 2020. The country is one of the main granaries of the planet, being the biggest producer of coffee in the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle-income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, which holds the largest share of South America's global wealth. As a regional and middle power, the nation has international recognition and influence, and it is also classified as an emerging global power and as a potential superpower by several analysts. However, the country still maintains considerable levels of corruption, criminality and social inequality. It is a founding member of the United Nations

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