Julian calendar

Article

January 26, 2022

The Julian calendar was organized by the wise Sosigenes of Alexandria, in the year 46 BC. The name is a tribute to Julius Caesar, at the time the maximum pontiff of the Roman Republic, who had the task of deciding when to introduce intercalary months into the traditional Roman calendar. , a lunisolar calendar. The reform of the Julian calendar came into effect on January 1, 45 BC, turning the Roman calendar into a solar calendar, aligned by the seasons, similar to the Egyptian calendar then in force. The main features of this were: Fix the annual calendar at 365 days, which is called a common year, inherited from the Egyptian priest astronomers, who established a year of 365 days, around the year 2800 BC; Fix the annual calendar at 12 months, completely abandoning the system of intercalary months, and distributing the days of difference between the average value of the traditional and the new calendar over the various months of the year, adding them by 1 or 2 days; Add 1 day every 4 years (4 x 6 hours 24 hours, 1 day), resulting from the difference of approximately 6 hours between the 365 days of the new calendar and the mean value of the tropical year of 365 days and 6 hours, or 365 days and 1/4 or 365.25 days. The intercalary day occurred on the 6th (sixth) day (VI) before the calends of March or 24th of February in our calendar. The repeated day was said to be the leap day before the calends of March, which came to identify both the day thus added (leap day) and the year in which this intercalation took place (leap year). When the typical form of counting backwards of the Roman calendar was abandoned and the continuous counting of the days of the month was used, from the first to the last day, the day to be added started to be inserted after the last day of the month of February, before the month of March, as we still use it today; The first day of the year becomes the day of the Kalends of January or the 1st of January in our calendar, 8 days after the winter solstice, calculated to coincide with the 8th day (VIII) before the Kalends of January or the 25th of December in the our calendar, like the other seasons, should also occur around the eighth day before the months of April, July and October. The Julian calendar, with the modifications made by Augustus, continues to be used by Orthodox Christians in several countries. In it, leap years always occur every four years, while in the Gregorian calendar secular years are not leap years except for multiples of 400, which today accumulates a difference to the Gregorian calendar of 13 days. Thus, January 2, 2022 in the Gregorian calendar, is December 20, 2021 in the Julian calendar.

Roman Calendar

Traditionally it is said that the Roman calendar was established by Romulus at the time of the creation of Rome,[citation needed] in 753 BC it had 10 months and a total of 304 days. It was modified by Numa Pompilius[citation needed] who transformed it to lunisolar, with twelve months totaling 355 days, which to keep the calendar aligned with the solar year, an extra month, mensis intercalaris, was added every two years, making the years an irregular sequence of 355, 377, 355, 378 days and which still depended on adjustments. The decision to insert the extra month was the responsibility of the pontiff maximus (pontifex maximus), who sought to keep the calendar in sync with the seasonal events of the Earth's translation, which was not always accurate.

Julian Calendar

In 46 BC, Julius Caesar, realizing that the Roman festivals scheduled for March (which was then the first month of the year), were taking place in the middle of winter, also due to the lack of introduction of intercalary months in the last 10 years, prepared a profound reform. of the calendar, following in a practical way the model of the Egyptian calendar with the advice of the Alexandrian astronomer Sosigenes. THE

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