Charles Darwin

Article

December 8, 2021

Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FGRS FLS FLZ (English pronunciation: ['dɑːrwɪn]; Shrewsbury, 12 February 1809 – Downe, 19 April 1882) was a British naturalist, geologist, and biologist renowned for his advances in evolution in biological Sciences. Together with Alfred Wallace, Darwin established the idea that all living things descend from a common ancestor, an argument now widely accepted and considered a fundamental concept in scientific circles, and proposed the theory that evolutionary branches are the result of natural and sexual selection. , where the fight for survival results in consequences similar to those of artificial selection. His 1859 book, The Origin of Species, caused amazement in society and the scientific community at the time, but achieved great acceptance in the following decades, overcoming the rejection that scientists had by transmutation of species. As early as 1870, evolution by natural selection had the support of most intellectuals. Its near-universal acceptance, however, was not achieved until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis between the 1930s and 1950s when a broad consensus consolidated natural selection as the basic mechanism of evolution. Darwin's theory is considered the unifying mechanism to explain life and diversity on Earth. In his early years, Darwin refused to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he focused on researching invertebrate animals. At the University of Cambridge (Christ's College), he took the initiative in the natural sciences and traveled for five years on the HMS Beagle, a project that launched him as an eminent geologist and whose observations supported the ideas of Charles Lyell; the publications in his diaries about the paths traveled consolidated his fame. Intrigued by the geographic distribution of wildlife and fossils collected during his journey, Darwin began detailed investigations and, in 1838, conceived the theory of natural selection. After discussing his ideas with various naturalists, Darwin needed more time to make his idea public, something that conflicted with his extensive geological work that took precedence. In 1858, naturalist Alfred Wallace sends Darwin a scientific essay establishing the same ideas and suggests a joint publication. With the publication enshrined, Darwinian evolutionary theory dramatically determined the landscape of the biological sciences, becoming the dominant explanation of why natural diversity of the planet. In 1871, Darwin returned to publish significant books, this time starting on human sexuality and its offspring, entitled The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of Emotion in Men and Animals in 1872. His dedication to plants they resulted in several book publications, and his last would be The Formation of Vegetable Molds through the Action of Worms in 1881, months before his death the following year. In recognition of the importance of his work, Darwin was buried in Westminster Abbey, next to Charles Lyell, William Herschel and Isaac Newton. He was one of five people unrelated to the English royal family to have a state funeral in the 19th century. For his scientific role, Darwin is considered one of the greatest personalities in history.

Biography

Early years

Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on February 12, 1809, in a family estate known as The Mount. The fifth of six siblings and the son of physician and investor Robert Darwin by Susannah Darwin (maiden name, Wedgwood), Charles was the grandson of two prominent abolitionists: Erasmus Darwin on his father's side and Josiah Wedgwood on his mother's. they were Unitarians, although the Wedgwoods also shared the Anglican belief. Robert Darwin himself, who declared

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