Chile

Article

August 12, 2022

Chile (pronounced in European Portuguese: [ˈʃilɨ, ˈʃiɫ]; pronounced in Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈʃili]; pronounced in Spanish: [ˈtʃile]), officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: República de Chile), is a country in South America. South that occupies a long and narrow coastal strip wedged between the Andes mountain range and the Pacific Ocean. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east and the Drake Passage, the southernmost tip of the country. The Pacific forms the entire western border of the country, with a coastline that stretches for 6,435 kilometers. With almost 20 million inhabitants, Chile comprises some overseas territories, such as the Juan Fernández Archipelago, the Desventuradas Islands, Sala y Gómez Island and Easter Island, the last two of which are located in Polynesia. Chile claims sovereignty over 1,250,000 square kilometers of territory in Antarctica. It is one of only two countries in South America that do not share a common border with Brazil, along with Ecuador. Chile has an unusual territory, measuring 4,300 kilometers long and, on average, 175 kilometers wide, which gives the country a very varied climate, ranging from the driest desert in the world — the Atacama — in the north of the country, to a Mediterranean climate in the center, to a snow-prone alpine climate in the south, with glaciers, fjords and lakes. The northern Chilean desert contains great mineral wealth, mainly copper. A relatively small area in central Chile dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources. This area is the cultural, political and financial center from which Chile expanded at the end of the 19th century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions into a single nation. The south of the country is rich in forests and grasslands and has a range of mountains, volcanoes and lakes. The south coast is a gigantic labyrinth of peninsulas made up of fjords, inlets, canals and islands. The Andes mountain range is located along the entire eastern Chilean border. The first humans probably arrived in Chile around 18,500 years ago. Before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, northern Chile was under Inca rule, while the Mapuche Indians (also known as Araucanians by Spanish settlers) inhabited the center and south of the territory. Although Chile declared its independence in 1817, decisive victory against Spanish control was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879–83), the country defeated Bolivia and Peru and conquered the northern regions. Chile, which until then seemed to be relatively free from the political instability and the emergence of authoritarian governments that affected the rest of the South American continent, endured 17 years of a rigid military dictatorship (1973–1990), one of the bloodiest of the 20th century. in Latin America, responsible for the deaths of more than three thousand people. Currently, Chile is one of the most stable and prosperous countries in South America, also having the best Human Development Index within the context of Latin America. The country also has good levels of quality of life, political stability, globalization, economic freedom and perception of corruption, as well as comparatively low rates of poverty. The level of press freedom and democratic development is also high in the country. In May 2010, Chile became the first South American country to join the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), as well as being a member of several other international organizations, such as the United Nations (UN), the Organization of American States (OAS), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), the Asian and Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Pacific Alliance ( AP), the Parliament