Airline, airline or airline is a company that provides air transport services for passengers, goods or mail, whether regular or not. Aircraft used for this purpose are commonly known as carrier aircraft.
Several companies join airline alliances to increase their competitiveness by reducing costs and sharing or sharing flights. These companies need the concession of routes or airlines by the governments of the countries where their planes fly over.
The first airline was created in Germany by Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin on November 16, 1909, "DELAG", (Deutsche Luftschiffahrt-Aktiengesellschaft, which translates as German Society for Airship Transport), carrying approximately 34,000 passengers between 1910 and 1913. In 1914 Tony Jannus began the first commercial flights in the United States to Florida.
The first company to use aircraft was Aircraft Transport and Travel from the UK in 1916, using Airco DH.4 aircraft modified for 2 passengers with flights between Folkestone in the UK and Ghent in Belgium, later in 1916 the company acquired Airco DH aircraft .16 with capacity for 4 passengers.
In 1919 several companies were created, the Handley Page Aircraft Company which used Handley Page Type O aircraft with capacity for 19 passengers, in France two companies were created, Société Générale des Transports Aériens and Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes. Albert Plesman in the Netherlands to Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij (KLM), currently the oldest company still in operation, with Airco DH.16 planes and which operated flights from London to Amsterdam. In 1923, Aero Y/O (now Finnair) was created in Finland, and in 1932, Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A.G. was created in Russia with flights between Russia and Germany, which currently uses the name Aeroflot.
In 1923 two French companies merged creating the Air Union, now Air France. In 1926, Deutsche Luft Hansa (known as Lufthansa) was created. The following year, Brazil would win VARIG and Cruzeiro do Sul.
Airlines can be classified as international, national, regional, domestic, low cost (low cost), regular flights or charter flights (charter flights), depending on the chosen methodology.
Internationally, the air market is regulated by ICAO (United Nations agency) and by IATA (airline representative).
In Brazil, Law No. 7,565, of December 19, 1986, created the Brazilian Aeronautical Code, which replaced the Brazilian Air Code, of 1966. Today, the Montreal Convention is in force, promulgated by Decree No. 5.910, of 27 September 2006; held in Montreal on May 28, 1999; approved by the National Congress through Legislative Decree No. 59, of April 18, 2006; entered into force internationally on November 4, 2003, and for Brazil on July 18, 2006, pursuant to its Article 53.
According to the best doctrine, the Consumer Defense Code, due to its nature of public order, based on an express constitutional provision, prevails over the Conventions, especially with regard to indemnities for failure to provide services.
The regulatory body
The National Civil Aviation Agency (ANAC) created in 2005 is the Brazilian agency responsible for regulating and inspecting airlines. To start an operation, a company wishing to operate in commercial air transport must obtain two authorizations from ANAC:
Economic: refers to the minimum financial conditions to operate.
Technique: aims to verify whether the company has minimum conditions related to human resources