August 12, 2022

Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatska, pronounced AFI: [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: ? Republika Hrvatska), is a European country located in the Balkans, bordering to the north with Slovenia and Hungary, to the northeast with Serbia, to the east with Bosnia and Herzegovina and to the south with Montenegro. It is bathed to the west by the Adriatic Sea and has a maritime border with Italy, in the Gulf of Trieste. After the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of Croatian territory was incorporated into a Nazi-backed client state, the Independent State of Croatia. In response, a resistance movement developed. This led to the creation of the Federal State of Croatia, which after the war became a founding and constituent member of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On June 25, 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came into full force on October 8 of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was successfully fought for four years after the declaration. The country is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Council of Europe and more recently, the European Union. Croatia's candidacy to the European Union (EU) took place on 1 February 2003 and accession on 1 July 2013, being the second country formed from the territory of the former Yugoslavia to join the EU, after Slovenia in 2004. .Croatia is ranked by the World Bank as a high-income country and has been ranked 46th on the Human Development Index. The economy is dominated by services, industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world. The state controls a portion of the economy, with substantial government spending. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia offers social security, universal health care, and tuition-free primary and secondary education, as well as supporting culture through various public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.


The toponym "Croatia" entered the Portuguese language through Croatian French ("Croatian"). This, in turn, seems to come from the Slavonic horvat, "mountains". The gentilic for the country is "Croatian" and is registered in Portuguese from 1538 onwards. There are even rarer alternatives: "Croatian", "Croatian" and "Croatian", the latter only referring to the language of the country. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it is believed to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term attributed to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested on the Baška tablet in the zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ style ("Zvonimir, Croatian king"). from the year 852. The original has been lost and only a copy from 1568 is preserved, which leads to doubts about the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th century Branimir inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is called Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be accurately dated, but it is likely to date from 879 to 892, during Branimir's rule.



The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating back to the Middle Paleolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous site being in the Krapina region. Remnants of various Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures have been found in all regions of the country. The largest proportion of the sites are in the river valleys of northern Croatia, where the most significant cultures are seen.