August 12, 2022

Landslides are various forms of mass loss that can include a wide range of ground movements such as rockfalls, mud flows, and debris flows. Landslides occur in a variety of environments, characterized by steep or gentle gradients, from mountain ranges to coastal cliffs or even underwater, in which case they are called submarine landslides. Gravity is the main driving force for a landslide to occur, but there are other factors that affect slope stability that produce specific conditions that make a slope prone to failure. In many cases, landslides are triggered by a specific event (such as heavy rain, an earthquake, a hillside cut to build a road, and many others), although this is not always identifiable.

Causing tsunamis

Landslides that occur under the sea, or impact water, for example significant rockfall or volcanic collapse at sea, can generate tsunamis. Massive landslides can also spawn megatsunamis, which are often hundreds of meters tall. In 1958, one such tsunami occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.

Extraterrestrial landslides

Evidence of past landslides has been detected on many solar system bodies, but as most observations are made by probes that only observe for a limited time and most solar system bodies appear to be geologically inactive, it is unknown. that many landslides have occurred recently. Both Venus and Mars have undergone long-term mapping by orbiting satellites, and examples of landslides have been observed on both planets.

Historical slips

Main article: List of landslides The Goldau 1806 landslide on September 2, 1806. The Cap Diamant Québec rockslide on September 19, 1889. Frank Slide, Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada, April 29, 1903. Khait Slide, Khait, Tajikistan, Soviet Union, July 10, 1949. A 7.5 magnitude earthquake in Yellowstone Park (August 17, 1959) caused a landslide that blocked the Madison River. Monte Toc landslide (260 million cubic meters, 9.2 billion cubic feet) falling into the Vajont dam basin in Italy, causing a megatsunami and about 2,000 deaths, on October 9, 1963. Hope Slide landslide (46 million cubic meters, 1.6 billion cubic feet) near Hope, British Columbia on January 9, 1965. The Aberfan disaster in 1966. Tuve Slide in Gothenburg, Sweden, November 30, 1977. The 1979 Abbotsford landslide, Dunedin, New Zealand, on August 8, 1979. The eruption of Mount St. Helens (May 18, 1980) caused a massive landslide when the top 1,300 feet of the volcano suddenly caved in. Val Pola landslide during the Valtellina disaster (1987) Italy Thredbo landslide, Australia on July 30, 1997, hostel destroyed. Vargas mudslides due to heavy rains in Vargas State, Venezuela in December 1999, causing tens of thousands of deaths. 2005 La Conchita landslide in Ventura, California, causing 10 deaths. 2007 Chittagong mudslide in Chittagong, Bangladesh on June 11, 2007. 2008 landslide in Cairo on September 6, 2008. The 2009 Peloritani Mountains disaster caused 37 deaths as of October 1. The 2010 Uganda landslide caused more than 100 deaths after heavy rains in the Bududa region. Mudslide in Zhouqu County in Gansu, China, Aug 8, 2010. Devil's Slide, an ongoing landslide in San Mateo, California. 2011 landslide of the