Diplomacy is an instrument of foreign policy, for the establishment and development of peaceful contacts between the governments of different States, through the use of intermediaries, mutually recognized by the respective parties. It is usually undertaken through career diplomats and involves matters of war and peace, foreign trade, cultural promotion, coordination in international organizations and other organizations. Diplomatic relations are defined in terms of international law by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (CVRD), of 1961.
It is important to distinguish between diplomacy and foreign policy — the former is a dimension of the latter. Foreign policy is ultimately defined by the Head of Government of a country or the high political authority of a subject of international law; diplomacy, on the other hand, can be understood as a tool dedicated to planning and executing foreign policy, through the actions of diplomats.
Figuratively, or colloquially, diplomacy is the use of delicacy or good manners, or even astuteness in dealing with any business. The patron saint of diplomats and the exercise of diplomacy is São Gabriel. Three famous Brazilian diplomats were José Maria da Silva Paranhos Júnior, the Baron of Rio Branco, João Cabral de Melo Neto and Vinicius de Moraes.
The term is registered in Portuguese from 1836 and comes from the Greek díplóma, matos, "double object, tablet of paper folded in two", through the Latin diploma, "folded paper, letter of recommendation, letter of license or privilege" and from French diplomatie (1790), "science of diplomas" or "relating to political relations between States or referring to diplomats".
The faculty of practicing diplomacy is one of the defining elements of the State, which is why it has been exercised since the formation of the first city-states, millennia ago. In Antiquity and the Middle Ages, diplomats were almost always sent only for specific negotiations, returning with their conclusion. History records as the first permanent diplomatic agents the Apocrisiaries, representatives of the Pope and other Catholic patriarchs in Byzantium. The procurators in Romanam Curiam, representatives of European sovereigns to the Pope in Rome, also exercised their functions on a permanent basis. With these two institutions (apocrysiaries and procurators) came the first concepts of what would become modern diplomacy, such as instructions, credentials and immunities.
The origin of modern diplomacy can be found in the States of Northern Italy, at the beginning of the Renaissance, with the establishment of the first diplomatic missions in the 13th century. The first permanent diplomatic mission was established by Milan in 1446 with the government of Florence. In northern Italy, several traditions of diplomacy emerged, such as the presentation of credentials of foreign ambassadors to the Head of State.
Among the great European powers, Spain was the first to maintain a permanent representative abroad - at the English court, from 1487. By the end of the 16th century, the establishment of permanent missions had already become frequent in Europe. At that time, the idea of a diplomat was Henry Wotton's definition: "an upright man sent abroad to lie for his country," as he said when on a mission for England in Augsburg in 1604. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) consolidated the need for permanent diplomatic missions, through which European states sought to create or preserve alliances. Since ambassadors were, as a general rule, members of the nobility or politicians with little experience in foreign affairs , a growing base of professional diplomats was created in the Missions