International Space Station


December 8, 2021

International Space Station (EEI) (International Space Station, ISS, Russian: Междунаро́дная косми́ческая ста́нция, МКС) is a fully completed space laboratory whose assembly in orbit began in 1998 and officially ended on July 8, 2011 on the mission STS-135, with the space shuttle Atlantis. The station is in a low orbit of 408 x 418 km, which makes it possible to see the Earth with the naked eye, and travels at an average speed of 27,700 km/h, completing 15.70 orbits per day. In the continuation of operations by Russian Mir and US Skylab, the International Space Station represents the current human permanence in space and has been maintained with a crew of no less than three astronauts since November 2, 2000. With each crew surrender , the station comprises two teams (one in service and the next) as well as one or more visitors. EEI is involved in several space programs, being a joint project of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA/ASC), European Space Agency (ESA), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (宇宙航空研究 or JAXA), Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSKOSMOS ) and the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The space station is in Earth orbit at an altitude of approximately 400 kilometers, an orbit typically called low Earth orbit. Due to the low altitude, the station needs to be constantly repositioned in orbit due to aerodynamic drag. The station loses, on average, 100 meters of altitude per day and orbits the Earth in a period of about 92 minutes. On June 27, 2008 (01:01 UTC) it has completed 55,000 orbits since the launch of the Zarya module, the first to be launched into space. It is common to associate the station with a state of "zero gravity", thus creating some confusion, as such zero gravity does not occur. The gravity on the space station, taking into account a terrestrial radius of 6,378.1 km, is from 8.3 m/s² to 8.4 m/s², due to the equality of the Law of Universal Gravitation (LGU) and the weight, the which is considerable. The "zero gravity" effect occurs because the station is "eternally falling" due to the curve caused by the "centripetal force" to which it is subjected. The International Space Station was mainly served by the space shuttle (European Portuguese) or space shuttle (Brazilian Portuguese) and by the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft. The last mission of a space shuttle - Atlantis - was carried out on July 8, 2011. The station is used continuously for scientific experiments (some that would be very difficult to carry out on the Earth's surface, but relatively easy in orbit). The station is currently ready to house crews of six elements. Until July 2006, all permanent crew members were part of the Russian or American space programs. Currently, the EEI receives crew from European, Canadian and Japanese space agencies. The Station has also been visited by many astronauts from other countries and by space tourists.


According to the original Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and Rosaviakosmos, the International Space Station was intended to be a laboratory, observatory, and factory in low earth orbit. It was also planned to provide transport, maintenance and act as a preparation base for possible future missions to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. In the 2010 United States National Space Policy, EEI was given additional roles to serve commercial, diplomatic, and educational purposes.

Scientific research

The EEI is a platform for conducting scientific research. Small unmanned spacecraft can provide platforms for zero gravity and exposure to space, but stations

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