July 6, 2022

United States of America (USA; in English: United States of America - USA; pronounced: [juːˈnaɪ.təd ˈsteɪʦ əv əˈmɛ.ɹɪ.kə]), or simply the United States or America, is a federal constitutional republic composed of 50 states and a federal district. Most of the country is located in central North America, made up of 48 states and the District of Columbia, the capital's federal district. Bathed by the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, it borders Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, bordering Canada to the east and Russia to the west, across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the Central Pacific. The country also has several other territories in the Caribbean and Pacific Ocean. With an area of ​​9.37 million km² and a population of over 330 million, the country is the fourth largest in total area, the fifth largest in contiguous area and the third in population. The United States is one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations in the world, a product of strong immigration from many countries. Its geography and climate systems are also extremely diverse, with deserts, plains, forests and mountains that are home to a wide variety of species. Paleo-Indians, who migrated from Asia fifteen thousand years ago, inhabit what is now the territory of the United States to this day. This native population was greatly reduced after contact with Europeans due to disease and war. The United States was founded by the thirteen colonies of the British Empire located along its Atlantic coast. On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was issued, which proclaimed their right to self-determination and the creation of a cooperative union. Rebel states defeated Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War, the first successful colonial war of the Contemporary Age. The Philadelphia Convention passed the current United States Constitution on September 17, 1787; its ratification the following year made the states part of a single republic with a strong central government. The Bill of Rights, made up of ten constitutional amendments guaranteeing various civil rights and fundamental freedoms, was ratified in 1791. Guided by the doctrine of manifest destiny, the United States embarked on a vigorous territorial expansion across North America during the 19th century that resulted in the displacement of Indian tribes, acquisition of territories, and the annexation of new states. The conflicts between the agrarian south and the industrialized north of the country over the rights of states and the expansion of the institution of slavery led to the Civil War, which took place between 1861 and 1865. The victory of the North prevented the separation of the country and led to the end of slavery in the United States. In the late 19th century, its economy became the largest in the world and the country expanded into the Pacific. The Spanish-American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a military power. The nation emerged from World War II as the first nuclear-armed country and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union left it as the only remaining superpower. The United States is a developed country and forms the largest national economy in the world, with a gross domestic product that in 2012 was 15.6 trillion* dollars, equivalent to 19% of world GDP by purchasing power parity (PPP) 2011. Its per capita income was the sixth highest in the world in 2010, yet the country is the most unequal of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) members, as calculated by the World Bank. Its economy is fueled by the abundance of natural resources,