Ethiopia

Article

December 8, 2021

Ethiopia (Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ; Romaniz.: ʾĪtyōṗṗyā), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, transl. ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dīmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk) and formerly known as Abyssinian African country, is a country being one of the oldest in the world. It is the second most populous nation in Africa and the tenth largest by area. It borders Sudan and South Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east, and Kenya to the south. Its capital is the city of Addis Ababa. Considering that most African states are much less than a century old, Ethiopia has been a continuously independent country from times past. A monarchic state that has occupied most of its history, the Ethiopian Dynasty, has its roots in the 10th century BC When the African continent was divided between the European powers at the Berlin Conference, Ethiopia was one of only two countries to maintain its independence . The nation was one of (only) three African members of the League of Nations, and after a brief period of Italian occupation, the country became a member of the United Nations. When other African nations gained their independence after World War II, many of them adopted Ethiopian flag colors, and Addis Ababa became the headquarters of several international organizations focused on Africa. In 1974, the dynasty, led by Haile Selassie, was overthrown. Since then, Ethiopia has been a secular state with varying government systems. Today, the country's capital is still home to the African Union and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. In addition to being an ancient country, Ethiopia is one of the most inveterate sites of human existence known to scientists studying the longest-lived traces of humanity; it could potentially be the place where Homo sapiens originated. Ethiopia shares with South Africa the post with the highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa (eight in each country). The country also has close historical ties to the three major Abrahamic religions in the world, being one of the first Christian countries in the world, having officially adopted it as a state religion in the fourth century. Most of the country's population is Christian, yet a third of its inhabitants are Muslim. Ethiopia is the site of the first Hegira in Islamic history and the oldest Muslim population in Africa, at Negash, and until the 1980s a significant population of Ethiopian Jews resided in the nation. In addition, the country has, in all, around 80 different ethnic groups, with the largest of them being the Oromo, followed by the Amhara, both of whom speak Afro-Asiatic languages. The country is also famous for its stone-cut churches and as the place where the coffee bean originated. In the period after the fall of the monarchy, Ethiopia became one of the poorest countries on the globe and suffered a tragic series of famines in the 1980s, resulting in millions of deaths. Slowly, however, the country began to recover, and today the Ethiopian economy is one of the fastest growing in Africa.

Etymology

It is not quite certain how old the word Ethiopia is, the earliest usage of which appears in the Bible in Genesis chapter 2. And also in Iliad, where the name appears twice, and in Odyssey, where it appears three times. The oldest attested use in the region is a Christianized name for the Kingdom of Axum in the fourth century, in stone writings of King Ezana. The name ge'ez ʾĪtyōṗṗyā and its Portuguese cognate are thought by some scholars to be derived from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία, Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ, Aithiops 'an Ethiopian', derived in turn from Greek words meaning "with a burnt face" . in the and

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