Nazi Germany occupied Europe
Nazi Germany-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe that were wholly or partially occupied by Nazi Germany (including puppet governments) by the military forces and the government of Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945, during and just before World War II World, generally administered by the Nazi regime. The Wehrmacht occupied European territory:
In the far east of the city of Mozdok, in the North Caucasus, in the Soviet Union (1942–1943)
In the north, such as the settlement of Barentsburg in Svalbard in the Kingdom of Norway
In the south to the island of Gavdos in the Kingdom of Greece
In the west to the island of Ushant in the French Republic. Outside Europe proper, German forces effectively controlled areas of North Africa in Egypt, Libya and Tunisia under ostensible British, Italian and French Vichy rule, sometimes between 1941 and 1943. Scientists German military established the base of the Schatzgräber meteorological station (1943-1944), to the north, Terra de Alexandra, in Terra de Francisco José and probably part of Asia. German manned weather stations also operated in North America (Greenland: Holzauge, Bassgeiger, Edelweiss base 1942–1944). In addition, German Kriegsmarine ships operated in all the world's oceans during the war.
Several countries occupied by Nazi Germany initially entered World War II as Allies of the United Kingdom or the Soviet Union. Some were forced to surrender before the start of the war, such as Czechoslovakia; others like Poland (invaded on September 1, 1939) were conquered in battle and then occupied. In some cases, legitimate governments went into exile; in others, governments in exile were formed by their citizens in other Allied countries. Some countries occupied by Germany were officially neutral. Others were former members of the Axis Powers who were occupied by German forces at a later stage in the war.
Occupied countries include all or most of the following:
Governments in exile
Allied Governments in Exile
Axis Governments in Exile
Neutral governments in exile
Drang nach Osten ("East Drive")
Lebensraum ("Vital Space")
Neuordnung ("New Order")
Areas annexed by Nazi Germany
Bank, Jan. Churches and Religion in the Second World War (Occupation in Europe) (2016)
Gildea, Robert and Olivier Wieviorka. Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: Daily Life in Occupied Europe (2007).
Klemann, Hein A.M. and Sergei Kudryashov, eds. Occupied Economies: An Economic History of Nazi-Occupied Europe, 1939–1945 (2011).
It broke, Pieter. The Legacy of Nazi Occupation: Patriotic Memory and National Recovery in Western Europe, 1945–1965 (1999)
Mazower, Mark (2008). Hitler's Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9780713996814
Scheck, Raffael; Fabien Théofilakis; and Julia S. Torrie, eds. German-occupied Europe in the Second World War (Routledge, 2019). 276 pp. online review
Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin (2010), on Eastern Europe
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