Giulio Andreotti GCC (January 14, 1919 – May 6, 2013) was an Italian Christian Democrat politician. He held the post of Prime Minister of Italy for several terms. Since 1991 he has been a senator for life by presidential nomination.
Leader of the Italian Christian Democratic Party, he was prime minister from 1972-1973, 1976-1979 and 1989-1992.
He began his political career in 1946 as a deputy, although he had been a Christian Democrat leader since 1944. Before that, he was a journalist by profession, having co-founded Popolo, his party's newspaper. He was a collaborator of Alcide De Gasperi, passing through all his governments with the most varied functions.
In 1954 he was Minister of the Interior; in 1955, Finance; in 1966, he was part of the third government of Aldo Moro; between February 1972 and June of the following year he presided over a Christian Democrat government, with the support of the centrist parties; in June 1976, after the general election, he took power with a minority Christian Democrat cabinet, which could only govern due to the abstention of the Communist parliamentary group.
In 1978, Andreotti formed a government with the Italian Communist Party, thus having an absolute parliamentary majority. The following year, the coalition cabinet came to an end due to Italy's controversial accession to the European monetary system, which the communists were opposed to. The strong opposition of the socialists would prevent Andreotti from fulfilling his program to fight inflation to the letter.
In 1983 he took over as Minister of Foreign Affairs and in 1989 he formed a coalition government, succeeding Ciriaco De Mita.
On 31 October 1987 he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit, on 12 September 1990 he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Military Order of Christ and on 29 June 1990 he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Infante D. Henrique. Until the year of his resignation, in 1992, he led centre-right, centre-left and national unity governments. As far as foreign policy was concerned, he was pro-Arab, but also Atlanticist.
In 1993, in addition to several political scandals, the Justice accused Andreotti of crimes linked to the Mafia and illegal funding schemes for political parties. His trial began in 1995, but Andreotti was eventually acquitted in 1999. In 2003 the appeals court in Palermo rejected the acquittal sentence, stating that they had proved ties to the Mafia until 1980 (crime committed, but prescribed); in 2004 the sentence is confirmed by the Supreme Court.
In 2002, Giulio Andreotti was finally sentenced to 24 years in prison, for complicity with the murderers of journalist Mino Pecorelli, in 1979. However, he was not arrested as he enjoyed immunity, given his status as a senator for life. Pecorelli had been murdered by two individuals after announcing that he intended to publish a report on alleged illegal commission charges by Andreotti. The reporter had relied on documents from Christian Democracy leader Aldo Moro, killed by the Red Brigades the previous year. The Perugia court of appeal rejected the acquittal sentence issued in 1999 by a court of first instance - according to which Andreotti, then 83 years old, had nothing to do with the journalist's death.
In 2003, the Supreme Court overturned the sentence and acquitted Andreotti for not having committed the crime. His years in power were dealt with in the film Il Divo (2008), by Paolo Sorrentino.
List of Prime Ministers of Italy