January 26, 2022

Governor (from the Latin term gubernatore) is the political office, usually elective, that holds the maximum authority of the executive power in a province, district or state of a federation.

In Brazil

In Brazil, whose pact is federative, the governor is elected every four years, through the system of universal suffrage or voting in two rounds, reelection being allowed for the same period. The candidate who obtains 50% plus one of the votes in the first round is elected. If this condition is not satisfied, the two candidates with the most votes in the first round compete in the second round, and the candidate who obtains a simple majority, that is, the highest vote between the two candidates, is elected.


Over time, the position corresponding to the current "governor" had different official names: From the beginnings of Portuguese colonization until 1821: donee and captain-major. The succession system was hereditary, passing automatically from father to son, constituting local oligarchies, whose heads were known as senhor de engenho. Transitional period between colony and empire, from 1821 to 1824: "governor". Imperial period, from 1824 to 1889: provincial president. On February 28, 1821, the captaincies became provinces, and remained so throughout the Brazilian imperial period. Its rulers - called "presidents of province" - were appointed directly by the Emperor of Brazil (according to the Brazilian constitution of 1824 in its article 165), advised by the party in power (the Conservative Party or the Liberal Party). The president of the province did not have a mandate and could be exonerated or request removal in absentia. Mainly due to this concrete possibility of lack of a leader directly subordinated to the emperor and his ministry, provincial vice-presidents were chosen by the Local Assembly, theoretically able to temporarily exercise the vacant position until a new president was appointed by Imperial Charter and assumed the position. Old Republic, from 1889 to 1930: "state president". Vargas era, from 1930 to 1947: federal intervener. From the New Republic, from 1947 to the present: state governor.


Governor is the political office that represents the power of the state administration and the representation of the State in its legal, political and administrative relations, defending its interests with the Presidency and seeking investments and federal works. The governor of the Federal District, being a singular case (neutral municipality), performs certain functions that are applicable to the mayor. The term was established in 1947. However, throughout Brazil's history, the position corresponding to governor existed long before, but with different terminologies. With similar functions, we can mention the position of donee and captain-major, in the Colonial Period; the post of provincial president, in the Imperial Period; and that of president of state, in the Old Republic. In Brazil, he has a four-year term, being elected through the universal suffrage system. The candidate who has 50 percent of the votes plus one is elected; otherwise, the two candidates with the most votes contest the second round. In the United States, it is the delegates of each state who elect the governor, that is, the voting system is district. In the People's Republic of China, the governor is elected by the central system: it is the president who chooses the governors.

In Portugal

In Portugal, a civil governor is the one who represents the Government of the Portuguese Republic in each district. Civil governors are appointed by the Council of Ministers.

See also

governors lists civil governor General governor


External links

History of the rulers of São Paulo

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