Henrique IV de Inglaterra
Henry IV (Bolingbroke, 15 April 1367—London, 20 March 1413), also called Henry of Bolingbroke, was King of England from 1399 until his death. He was the son of John of Ghent, 1st Duke of Lencastre, and grandson of King Edward III, having taken the throne after deposing his cousin Richard II. Henry IV of England ruled as king from 1399 to 1413. Known as Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster before becoming king, Henry clashed with his cousin Richard II of England and was exiled in 1397. Returning to England with a small army in the summer of 1399, Henry became king when Richard's support collapsed. Starting his reign with the assassination of his predecessor, Henry would face major rebellions in England and Wales, and he often clashed with Parliament, particularly the "Long Parliament" of 1406. Henry was the first of the House of Kings Lancastre and was succeeded by his son Henry V of England. His life is portrayed in Henry IV, a two-part play by William Shakespeare.
Henrique IV was the brother of the Queen of Portugal, D. Filipa de Lencastre (First Queen of the Avis dynasty).
Birth and Family
Henry was born April 15, 1366 at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, son of John of Ghent (1340-1399), himself the son of Edward III of England (1327-1377) and therefore a claimant to the throne of Richard II. (who was grandson of Edward III and son of Edward the Black Prince (1330-1376) John was a powerful but unpopular figure who was passed over to the throne for supporting corrupt nobles and officials identified by Parliament. Mother of Henry Bolingbroke she was Blanche of Lancastre, daughter of the Duke of Lancastre.The young nobleman was given the title of Earl of Derby, the first of many he would acquire in his lifetime.
Henry married Mary of Bohun on February 5, 1381, but she died in childbirth in 1394. The couple's most famous son was Henry, the future Henry V, born on September 16, 1387. Henry, now king, married up again on February 7, 1403, this time with Joan of Navarre (1370-1437). Henry had a typical noble upbringing, where he showed talent for medieval tournament, courage, piety and interest in literature. Young Henry had his share of adventure when he twice went to fight pagans in Lithuania as part of the ancient Northern Crusades (12th-15th century) alongside the Teutonic Knights. There would also be a pilgrimage to Jerusalem before he focused on his ambitions in England.
Rivalry with Ricardo II
By 1386, Henry Bolingbroke had become one of England's leading barons and was a member of the disaffected group of nobles who opposed the king's favoritism over Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford. Richard made the extremely unpopular de Vere the Duke of Ireland in December 1387. The disaffected barons acted by defeating de Vere and his supporters at the Battle of Radcot Bridge near Oxford. Henry was then one of the five Recurring Lords who called the "Unmerciful Parliament" to take power from the still young Richard II. The king would have his revenge, however, in 1397 when, older, wiser and more secure on his throne, he rounded up the conspirators and executed them or exiled them. Henry, the king's cousin, was, luckily for him, in the latter category.
Initially, it appeared that Henry had survived the king's purge, but a quarrel between Bolingbroke and Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk the two surviving recurrent lords, devised by Richard, resulted in two dukes facing off in a medieval joust at Coventry in September 1398 With a huge crowd eagerly waiting to witness the end of an event rich in pageantry, the king stepped forward and forbade the two to fight. Ricardo and