Military intervention in Libya in 2011

Article

January 26, 2022

The military intervention in Libya began on March 19, 2011, when the armed forces of several countries intervened in the Civil War in Libya, supporting the country's opposition that was trying to overthrow the government of Muammar al-Gaddafi and with the aim of creating a no-fly zone in Libyan airspace, following United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 of March 17, 2011. The no-fly zone was proposed to prevent the Libyan air force from attacking rebel forces. the Arab League asked the United Nations Security Council to impose an exclusion zone. On 15 March, Lebanese Ambassador Nawaf Salam proposed the request as a resolution, which was supported by France and the United Kingdom. On 17 March, the Security Council voted with ten votes in favor to none against to pass a no-fly zone through Resolution 1973. There were five abstentions from Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRICs) and Germany. The United States commanded the military operations until March 27, when it formally handed over command of the operation to NATO. against forces loyal to dictator Muammar Gaddafi. The United States launched Operation Odyssey Dawn, France Operation Harmattan, Canada Operation MOBILE, the United Kingdom Operation Ellamy, and NATO commanded the so-called Operation Unified Protector. at least 110 Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired from American and British warships. Bombs were also dropped on Libya from French Air Force, Royal British Air Force and Royal Canadian Air Force planes and a naval blockade was also imposed by coalition forces. The fighting in Libya ended only in October with the death of Muammar al-Gaddafi. NATO formally announced the end of military operations in the region on 31 October 2011.

Compliance with the resolution

NATO's initial planning for a possible no-fly zone took place in late February and early March, especially by two NATO members, France and the United Kingdom. The United States had the necessary air assets to enforce a no-fly zone. airline, but was cautious to support such action before obtaining a legal basis for the violation of Libyan sovereignty. However, due to the sensitive nature of the military action, the United States sought Arab participation in enforcing a no-fly zone. At a congressional hearing, US Defense Secretary Robert Gates explained that "a no-fly zone no-fly began with an attack on Libya to destroy Libyan air defenses (...) and then we could fly the planes all over the country and not worry about our military being shot down. But that's the way it starts." On March 19, attacks by French fighter jets on Libya began, and in other countries began their individual operations. The first phase began on the same day with the involvement of the United States, United Kingdom, France, Italy and Canada.[citation needed] On 24 March, NATO ambassadors agreed that command of the no-fly zone enforcement would be in the hands of the organization, while other military operations would remain the responsibility of the group of nations previously involved. The decision came after meetings of NATO members to resolve disagreements over whether military operations in Libya should include attacks on ground forces. The decision created a two-tier power structure to oversee military operations. Politically in charge, a commission

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