Invasion of Ukraine by Russia in 2022

Article

May 29, 2022

On February 24, 2022, Russia launched a full-scale military invasion of Ukraine, one of its southwestern neighbors, marking a sharp escalation into a conflict that began in 2014. Several analysts called the invasion the largest military invasion. in Europe since World War II. After Ukraine's Dignity Revolution in 2014, Russia annexed Crimea, while Russian government-backed separatist forces took over the Donbas region of southeastern Ukraine. Since early 2021, a buildup of Russian military presence has taken place along the Russia-Ukraine border. The United States and other countries have accused Russia of planning an invasion of Ukraine, although Russian officials have repeatedly denied that they had any such intention. During the crisis, Russian President Vladimir Putin described NATO's post-1997 expansion as a "threat to the security" of his country, a claim that NATO rejects, and demanded that Ukraine be permanently barred from joining NATO. Putin also expressed irredentist Russian views and questioned Ukraine's right to exist. Before the invasion, trying to provide casus belli, Putin accused Ukraine of committing "genocide" against its Russian-speaking citizens, which was widely described as false and unfounded. the Lugansk People's Republic, two self-proclaimed states controlled by pro-Russian separatists in Donbas. The next day, the Russian Federation Council unanimously authorized the use of military force and Russian troops entered both territories. On February 24, Putin announced a "special military operation", allegedly to "demilitarize" and "denazify" Ukraine. Minutes later, missiles hit locations across Ukrainian territory, including Kiev, the capital. The Ukrainian Border Guard reported attacks on border posts with Russia and Belarus. Shortly afterward, Russian ground forces entered Ukraine. Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky enacted martial law and called for a general mobilization in the country. The invasion received widespread condemnation from the international community, including new sanctions imposed on Russia, which began to trigger a financial crisis in the country. According to estimates by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, as of May 1, 2022, more than 5.5 million Ukrainians have fled their country because of the war, and more than 7 million have been forced to internally relocate. . Global protests took place against the invasion, while the protests that took place in Russia were responded to with mass arrests and the Russian government significantly increased its crackdown on independent media. A large number of companies started a boycott of Russia and Belarus. Several states provided humanitarian and military aid to Ukraine. In response to military aid, Putin has put Russia's nuclear forces on high alert, raising tensions with the West while raising the possibility of an escalation to nuclear war.

Background

Post-Soviet Context

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine and Russia continued to maintain close ties. In 1994, Ukraine agreed to abandon its nuclear arsenal and signed the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, on the condition that Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States issue a guarantee against threats or use of force against territorial integrity. or political independence of Ukraine. Five years later, Russia was one of the signatories of the Charter for European Security, where it "reaffirmed the inherent right of each participating state to be free to choose or change its security arrangements, including alliance treaties, at