Islam

Article

January 27, 2022

Islam (European Portuguese) or Islam (Brazilian Portuguese) (Arabic: إسلام; Romaniz.: Islām) or Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion articulated by the Quran, a text considered by its followers to be the literal word of God (Allah, in Arabic : الله ; romaniz.: Allāh), and by the normative teachings and examples (the so-called sunna, part of the hadith) of Muhammad, considered by the faithful to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Muslims believe that God is unique and incomparable and the purpose of existence is to worship him. They also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed in many previous times and places, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider to be prophets. Followers of Islam claim that previous messages and revelations have been partially altered or corrupted over time, but consider the Quran (or Koran) to be an unaltered version of God's final revelation. Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic, mandatory concepts and acts of worship, and the practice of Islamic law, which touches virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on varied topics such as banking and welfare, to war and the environment. Most Muslims belong to one of the two main denominations; with 80% to 90% being Sunni and 10% to 20% being Shia. About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country in the world. 25% live in South Asia, 20% in the Middle East, 2% in Central Asia, 4% in other Southeast Asian countries and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa. Significant Islamic communities are also found in China, Russia and parts of Europe. Converted and immigrant communities are found in almost all parts of the world (see: Muslims by country). With around 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims comprising around 21-23% of the world's population, Islam is the second largest and fastest growing religion in the world.

Etymology

"Islam" comes from the Arabic Islām, which in turn derives from the fourth verb form of the root slm, aslama, and means "submission (to Allah)". According to the Arabist and philologist José Pedro Machado, the word "Islão" would not have appeared in the Portuguese language before 1843, the year in which it appears in chapter IX of the work Eurico, o Presbítero, by Alexandre Herculano. "diin", which means "way of life" and/or "religion" and has an etymological relationship with other Arabic words such as Salaam or Shalam (Shalaam / Shalom [3]), which mean "peace". It derives from the Arabic word muslim (plural, muslimún), active participle of the verb aslama, designating "one who submits". The word may have entered Portuguese from Castilian, and it is likely that this language has taken it from Italian or French, languages ​​in which the word appears in 1619 and 1657, respectively (in the first case as Mosulmani, in Viaggi, by Pietro della Valle, and in the second as mousulmans, in the work Voyages, by Le Gouz de la Boullaye). Muslims worship Muhammad (as, for a few centuries, completely unknowingly, the West thought), which makes the term offensive to many Muslims. During the Middle Ages and, by extension, in popular Christian legends and narratives, Muslims were also referred to as Saracens and also as Moors (although the latter term more specifically designated Muslims from the Maghreb, who were in the Iberian Peninsula). Islam can also refer to the set of countries that follow this religion (Islamic jurisprudence

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