January 26, 2022

Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (listen)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic located in south-central Europe. To the north, it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia along the Alps. The southern part consists of the entirety of the Italian peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and many other smaller islands surrounding the Italian territory. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. The country's territory covers about 301,338 km² and most of its territory has a temperate seasonal climate. With 60.8 million inhabitants in 2015, it is the fifth most populous nation in Europe and the 23rd in the world. Rome, the Italian capital, was for centuries the political and religious center of Western civilization as the capital of the Roman Empire and the seat of the Holy See. After the decline of the Romans, Italy suffered numerous invasions by foreign peoples, from Germanic tribes such as the Lombards and Ostrogoths, the Byzantines and later the Normans, among others. Centuries later, Italy became the birthplace of maritime republics and the Renaissance, an extremely fruitful intellectual movement that would be instrumental in the subsequent formation of European thought. For much of its post-Roman history, Italy was fragmented into several kingdoms (such as the Kingdom of Sardinia; the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Duchy of Milan, etc.) and city-states, but it was unified in 1861, after a tumultuous period in history known as "Il Risorgimento" ("The Resurgence"). Between the end of the 19th century and the end of the Second World War, Italy possessed a colonial empire that extended its rule to Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia, Albania, Dodecanese and a concession in Tianjin, China. a democratic republic, ranked as the 24th most developed country in the world and with a quality of life index among the top ten on the planet. The country enjoys a high standard of living and has a high nominal GDP per capita. It is a founding member of the European Union and part of the Eurozone, as well as being a member of the G7, G20, NATO, OECD, World Trade Organization (WTO), Council of Europe, Western European Union and the United Nations. Italy has the fourth largest gold reserves, the eighth largest nominal GDP, the tenth largest GDP (PPP) and the sixth largest public budget in the world. The Italian Republic has the ninth largest defense budget in the world, access to NATO nuclear weapons and a prominent role in European and world military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, making it one of the world's leading Middle Powers and a Regional Power of prominent in Europe. The country has a high level of public education and is a highly globalized nation.


Several hypotheses for the name of Italy have been formulated. One of them theorizes that the name originates from a linguistic loan. When the Etruscan hegemony was reaching its wane with the expansion of the Latins, the peoples of the South, in particular the Oscans, Umbrians and other peoples from the center and south of the Italian peninsula, had a large herd of cattle. In the Oscan language, the accusative 'vitluf' (to calves) gave way in Latin to 'vitellus' (little calf), a word from vitulos (calf between one and two years old) and similarly in Umbrian as vitlo. These words were derived from the Indo-European 'wet-olo' (of a completed year), formed in turn from 'wet-' (year), also present in the words "veteran" and "veterinarian". Cattle were so important to these peoples that they adopted as an emblem the image of a young bull, which appears on some coins of the time, with the name of vitalos, which in a short time converts

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