The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are awards awarded annually by the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden and the Swedish Academy and by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and Karolinska Institute to people and organizations who have made outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry , physics, literature, peace and physiology or medicine. The awards were created in 1895 by Alfred Nobel, who determined that they would be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Alfred Nobel Memorial Economics Prize was created in 1968 by Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden's central bank, for contributions in the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma and a sum of money, which is decided in advance by the Nobel Foundation.
The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel in 1895, with the aim of recognizing people or institutions that made outstanding research, discoveries or contributions to humanity in the immediately preceding year or in the course of their activities. The awards are administered by the Nobel Foundation, an organization created in 1900 at the will of Alfred Nobel in his will. Originally, the award was dedicated to people or organizations that stood out in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace and physiology or medicine. In 1968, the Alfred Nobel Memorial Economic Science Prize was created by a grant from the Swedish central bank Sveriges Riksbank to the Nobel Foundation to commemorate the bank's 300th anniversary, and has been awarded annually since 1969 by the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden to intellectuals in the field of economics. Although not one of the original Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel's will in 1895, it is generally regarded and often erroneously referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics. The prize is administered and referred to together with the Nobel Prizes by the Nobel Foundation. Each prize is given by a separate committee. The Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awards Physics, Chemistry and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Physiology or Medicine award and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Nobel Peace Prize. Each laureate receives a gold medal, a diploma and a prize money that has varied over the years. In 1901, the first Nobel Prize laureates received 150,782 SEK, which is equivalent to 8,402,670 SEK in December 2017. In 2017, the winners received a total of 9,000,000 SEK. The award takes place annually in Stockholm on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death. According to the Foundation's bylaws, in years when there is no award, due to external events or the absence of nominations, the value of the award Cash is reserved for the following year and may be returned to the Foundation's restricted funds. The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to World War II.
Between 1901 and 2020, the Nobel Prize and Alfred Nobel's Economic Sciences in Memory Prize were awarded 603 times to 962 individuals and organizations. With some people receiving the Nobel more than once, this totals 934 individuals and 28 organizations. Six Nobel laureates were banned by their country's government from accepting the prize: Adolf Hitler banned four Germans, Carl von Ossietzky (Peace, 1936), Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939) and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), to accept their awards; the government of the former Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to refuse him; and the government of China banned Liu Xiaobo (Peace, 2010) from receiving his award. Two laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Paz, 1973), refused the prize; Sartre had the attitude of refusing all pros.