Nobel Peace Laureates
October 19, 2021
The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is awarded annually by the Norwegian Nobel Committee "to the person who has done the greatest or best work for the brotherhood of nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the maintenance and promotion of peace congresses." It is one of five Nobel Prizes created as a result of the wish expressed by Alfred Nobel's 1895 will, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. As written in the will, the prize is managed by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Norwegian Parliament. The first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901 to Frenchman Frédéric Passy and Swiss Henry Dunant; the most recent award honored the World Food Program, the world's largest humanitarian agency, in 2020. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary amount of varying value over the years. In 1901, Passy and Dunant shared the prize of 150,782 SEK, the equivalent of 8 823 637.78 SEK in January 2018, while the 2017 laureate received the sum of 8,000,000 SEK. The Nobel Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, in the presence of the King of Norway, on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death, and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm. Unlike other awards, the Peace award is sometimes awarded to an organization (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, winner in three years) rather than to one or more individuals. The award is considered the most controversial of the Nobels, with several of its choices coming under criticism. Despite being nominated five times, Mahatma Gandhi never won. After his assassination in 1948, the Committee considered awarding him posthumously, but decided not to do so and instead did not award the Prize that year, justifying that "there was no suitable living candidate". In 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, who had died after his appointment but many months before the announcement, became the only laureate to be recognized posthumously; later, the Prize rules were modified to preclude future posthumous prizes. In 1973, Lê Đức Thọ refused the honor, explaining that "he was in no position to accept the Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as a reason for doing so." Linus Pauling, laureate in 1962, is the only person to have won the Nobel twice as the only recipient; he had won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. At the age of 17, Malala Yousafzai, winner of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize, is the youngest person to receive that distinction.