Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine
October 19, 2021
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (in Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is an annual prize awarded by the Karolinska Institute, in Sweden, honoring people who stand out in the research areas of physiology or medicine. It is one of five awards established in 1895 in the will of Alfred Nobel, who died in 1896. These awards are bestowed for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. As directed in the will, the prize is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee consisting of five members elected by the Royal Academy. Although commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize for Medicine, Nobel specifically stated that the prize would be awarded for "physiology or medicine" in his will. Therefore, the award can be awarded in a wider range of fields. The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil Adolf von Behring, from Germany. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a cash prize that has varied over the years. In 1901, von Behring received 150,782 SEK, which is equivalent to 8,402,670 SEK in December 2017. The prize is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. the Nobel Prize in a wide range of fields related to physiology or medicine. In 2009, 8 Awards were awarded for contributions in the field of signal transduction by G proteins and second messengers, 13 were awarded for contributions in the field of neurobiology, and 13 were awarded for contributions in intermediate metabolism. In 1939, Gerhard Domagk, a German, was not authorized by his government to accept the prize. He later received a medal and a diploma, but not the money. By 2020, the prize was awarded to 222 people, twelve of them women: Gerty Cori (1947), Rosalyn Yalow (1977), Barbara McClintock (1983), Rita Levi-Montalcini (1986), Gertrude B. Elion (1988), Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1995), Linda B. Buck (2004), Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (2008), Elizabeth H. Blackburn (2009), Carol W. Greider (2009), May-Britt Moser (2014) and Tu Youyou (2015). There were nine years that the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was not awarded (1915–1918, 1921, 1925, 1940–1942). There were also five years when the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was postponed for a year. The Prize was not awarded in 1914, as the Nobel Committee on Physiology or Medicine decided that none of that year's nominations met the necessary criteria, but it was awarded to Robert Bárány in 1915 and counted as the prize of 1914. This precedent was followed by the prize. 1922 awarded to Archibald Hill and Otto Fritz Meyerhof in 1923, the 1926 Prize awarded to Johannes Fibiger in 1927, the 1938 Prize awarded to Corneille Heymans in 1939, and the 1943 Prize awarded to Henrik Dam and Edward Adelbert Doisy in 1944.