Nobel laureates in Chemistry
October 19, 2021
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (in Swedish: Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in various fields of chemistry. It is one of five awards established in 1895 in the will of Alfred Nobel, who died in 1896. These awards are bestowed for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. As directed in the will, the prize is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee consisting of five members elected by the Royal Academy. The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff of the Netherlands. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a cash prize that has varied over the years. In 1901, van 't Hoff received 150,782 SEK, which is equivalent to 8,402,670 SEK in December 2017. The prize is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. 25 fewer laureates received the award for contributions in the field of organic chemistry, more than any other field of chemistry. Two Nobel laureates in Chemistry, the Germans Richard Kuhn (1938) and Adolf Butenandt (1939), were not allowed to receive the prize by their governments. Later, they received the medal and diploma, but not the money. Frederick Sanger is the only laureate to receive the prize twice, in 1958 and 1980. John Bardeen is the other who received the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, in 1956 and 1972. Two other winners were also awarded in other categories: Maria Skłodowska -Curie (physics in 1903; chemistry in 1911) and Linus Carl Pauling (chemistry in 1954; peace in 1962). By 2020, the prize has been awarded to 185 individuals, including seven women: Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Irène Joliot-Curie (1935), Dorothy Hodgkin (1964), Ada Yonath (2009), Frances Arnold (2018), Emmanuelle Charpentier (2020) ) and Jennifer Doudna (2020). The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has not been awarded in eight years (1916, 1917, 1919, 1924, 1933, 1940-42). There were also nine years in which the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was postponed for a year. The prize was not awarded in 1914, as the Nobel Committee for Chemistry decided that none of that year's nominations met the necessary criteria, but it was awarded to Theodore William Richards in 1915 and counted as the prize of 1914. This precedent was followed by the prize of 1918 awarded to Fritz Haber in 1919, the 1920 prize awarded to Walther Nernst in 1921, the 1921 prize awarded to Frederick Soddy in 1922, the 1925 prize awarded to Richard Adolf Zsigmondy in 1926, the 1927 prize awarded to Heinrich Otto Wieland in 1928, the 1938 Prize awarded to Richard Kuhn in 1939, the 1943 Prize awarded to George de Hevesy in 1944, and the 1944 Prize awarded to Otto Hahn in 1945.