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October 19, 2021

A liman is a kind of lake, bay or estuary that forms at the mouth of a river when the flow is blocked by a shoreline or a sediment bar. The Limanes can be marine (when the bar is created by the action of a marine current) or fluvial (when the bar is created by the flow of a larger river at a confluence). The name liman is mainly used to characterize the northern and western coasts of the Black Sea, as well as the lower reaches of the Danube River. Examples of limes are lake Varna (in Bulgaria), lake Razelm (in Romania) and the Dniester liman (in Ukraine). Russian geographers have also used the term in other places, for example in the far north-east of Siberia, the liman of Anadyr, the Autonomous Okrug of Chukotka and the liman of the Amur. The liman results from a circumstantial process. In particular, the river flows into a very sandy sea whose banks are substantially straight. Thus, the coastal drift constantly transports sand that accumulates at the mouth of the estuary, which can form one or several lakes that communicate with the sea.

Etymology

Etymologically it comes from the Russian LIMан (liman), which in turn comes from the medieval Greek λιμένας, which means bay or harbor. The word was spread by the Turks when they occupied the west and north coast of the Black Sea, giving it the meaning of harbor, shelter or refuge. In Bulgarian, Romanian, Ukrainian and Russian the word defines the particular estuary of the Dniester liman.

See also

Estuary lagoon

References

This article was initially translated from the English Wikipedia article, whose title is "Liman (landform)".

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