October 19, 2021

Moldova or Moldova (Republic of Moldova; formally Republic of Moldova, in Romanian: Republica Moldova; pronounced: [reˈpublika molˈdova] (listen )) is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, bordering Ukraine and Romania (by the Romanian region also called "Moldova"). Its capital and largest city is Quixinau (Romanian: Chișinău). In 1991, the then Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova declared independence from the Soviet Union, during the process of dissolution of the USSR. Only one region that belonged to the extinct Soviet Republic of Moldova, refused to integrate the new "Republic of Moldova": the region known as Transnistria (a small territorial strip located east of the Dniester River) preferred to declare its own independence, and from In fact, it has governed autonomously since the 1990s, although it is currently recognized by all UN member countries as an integral part of Moldova. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the relative weight of the service sector in Moldova's economy has grown and started to dominate its Gross Domestic Product (today around 62.5%) as a result of a decrease in the weight of its industry and agriculture. However, the country is still the poorest in Europe and the country in the region with the lowest Human Development Index (HDI). Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM — Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Community of Independent States (CIS), the Organization for Black Sea Economic Cooperation (OCEMN), among other international organisations. The country intends to become a member of the European Union, and has already implemented the first three-year Action Plan, in the context of the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP).



Moldova's prehistory covers the Upper Paleolithic period, which begins with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area of ​​southeastern Europe about 44,000 years ago, extending to the appearance of the first written records of Classical Antiquity in Greece. 2010, Olduva tools dating from 80,000 to 1.2 million years were discovered. During the Stone Age Neolithic, the territory of Moldova was at the center of the great Cucuteni culture that extended eastward, beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine; and west to the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The people of this civilization, which lasted approximately from 5,500 to 2,750 BC, practiced agriculture, raised cattle, hunted and manufactured elaborate ceramics.

Antiquity and early Middle Ages

In the 15th century, the Kingdom of Moldova was an important regional power center. It occupied Bessarabia, Western Moldova and Bukovina. From the 16th century onwards, it had successive overlords (feudal lords), Hungarians, Lithuanians, Romanians and Turks. In 1812, the region was divided by the Treaty of Bucharest: Bessarabia, located between the Prut and Dniestre rivers, was handed over by the Turkish-Ottoman Empire to the Russian Empire. In 1878, Romania proclaimed independence and joined Western Moldova. The Russian Empire controlled Bessarabia until World War I. In 1918, Bessarabia joined Romania. During Russian rule, a strong policy of Russification was implemented, with the replacement of the Latin alphabet by Cyrillic, the deportation of the local population and their replacement by Russian nationals. World War I brought more political and cultural awareness to the population, as around 300,000 Bessarabics were sent to the newly formed Russian army in 1917 and large units of Moldovan soldiers were formed. accompany

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