Neolithic (from the Greek neos, novo, and lithos, stone, "new stone") or Period of the Polished Stone is the historical period that goes from approximately the 10th millennium BC, with the beginning of sedentarization and the emergence of agriculture, to the 3rd millennium BC, giving way to the Age of Metals. It does not apply to American, Sub-Saharan, or Oceanic prehistory.
The first villages were created close to rivers, in order to enjoy fertile land (where seeds were planted for planting) and water for humans and animals. Also in this period, the domestication of animals (goat, ox, dog, dromedary, etc) began. Work is now divided between men and women, men take care of security, hunting and fishing, while women plant, harvest and take care of the children. The availability of food also allows populations to increase their leisure time; and the need to store food and seeds for cultivation leads to the creation of ceramic pieces, which gradually gain decorative purposes.
Trade also appears with the appearance of money[citation needed?], which facilitates the exchange of materials and which at the time began to be based on seeds. The seeds, differentiated from each other, had each type of value. A village, when producing more than necessary and, in order not to lose a large part of the production that would not be used, exchanges the excess for handicrafts, clothes and other utensils with other villages.
At this point, humans stop using animal skins as clothing, which due to their weight makes hunting and many other activities difficult, and start using more comfortable and lighter clothing made of wool, linen and cotton.
These changes in behavior were considered so important that the archaeologist Gordon Childe called this moment the Neolithic Revolution, or agrarian revolution, a decisive factor for the survival of the peoples in this period.
The Neolithic Revolution lasted for around 10,000 years, and its main points are:
The earth's crust warms, raising sea levels and resulting in climate change;
Large rivers and deserts are formed, as well as temperate and tropical forests;
Large animals disappear and give rise to the fauna we know today;
Plant life changes, favoring human survival;
There are great technical achievements of human beings that, combined with environmental transformations, allow them to gradually control nature;
The human being gradually learns to reproduce plants, domesticate animals and store food;
Agriculture and the domestication of animals favor a noticeable increase in population in some regions;
Technical achievements are expanded, such as the production of ceramics;
People gradually learn how to organize and work in cooperative systems. Scholars believe that as the human being in the Stone Age did not know writing, he used to record drawings on the walls of caves, used as a means of communication.
The Neolithic, because it was the last prehistoric period, ended with the rise of writing. The transition from the Neolithic to the Metal Age (Bronze Age and Iron Age) characterized the transition from Prehistory to History.
Around 10 000 BC, that is, about 12 thousand years ago, in the Mesolithic Period, several climatic changes took place that would come to create favorable conditions for the practice of agriculture and animal husbandry. The invention of agriculture took place in the fertile valleys of the great rivers of the Near East, in a region called the Fertile Crescent.
In the VIII millennium BC already cultivated cereals such as wheat and barley. Beans, corn and rice were the first cultures that man made. At the same time, animals such as the dog, the sheep or the goat were already domesticated. the man passed