Norway

Article

May 29, 2022

Norway (Bokmål: ? Norge pronounced: [noɾɡə]; Nynorsk: ? Noreg), officially the Kingdom of Norway (Bokmål: Kongeriket Norge, Nynorsk: Kongeriket Noreg), is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe, where it occupies the western part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, as well as the island of Jan Mayen and the arctic archipelago of Svalbard, through the Treaty of Svalbard. The mainland part of the country shares a border to the east with Sweden and to the north with Finland and Russia. The United Kingdom and the Faroe Islands lie to the west, across the North Sea, Iceland and Greenland are to the west, across the Norwegian Sea, and Denmark is near the southern end of the country, across the Strait of Escagerrak. Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic and Pedro I Island in the Antarctic glacial ocean are dependent territories (Norwegian: Biland) of Norway but are not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway also claims a part of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, a claim that has been recognized by Australia, France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Norway's extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, is home to its famous fjords. Norway maintains the Scandinavian social model, based on the Nordic model, universal healthcare, subsidized higher education and a comprehensive social security regime. Norway has been ranked as the most developed country in the world in all human development reports since 2001 (with data for 1999 to 2010). In 2009, the country was again ranked by the UN as the best country in the world to live in. Norway was also rated the most peaceful country in the world in a 2007 survey by the Global Peace Index. And in 2017, a study carried out by international experts, with support from the UN, ranked Norway as the happiest country in the world, surpassing Denmark, which topped the ranking the previous year. Norway maintains close ties with the bloc and its member countries, as well as with the United States. The country is considered a leading player in diplomacy and international cooperation, having been deeply involved in the failed Oslo Accords and negotiations for a truce between the Seri Lanca government and the Tamil Tigers. Norway remains one of the largest financial contributors to the United Nations and participates with UN forces in international peacekeeping missions, such as in Afghanistan, Kosovo and Darfur. A unitary state with two-level administrative subdivisions known as counties (fylker) and communes (kommuner), Norway is a hereditary constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with King Harald V as its Head of State. The Lapps have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over their traditional territories, through the Lapland Parliament and the Law of Denmark. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Council of Europe (COE) and the Nordic Council, as well as being a member of the European Economic Area, the World Trade Organization (WTO). ) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Etymology

Etymologists believe that the country's name means "the way to the north" (or the "northern way"), which in Old Norse would have been nor veg or *norð vegr. The Old Norse name for Norway was Noregr, Anglo-Saxon Norþ weg and Medieval Latin Northvegia. The official name of the Kingdom of Norway in Bokmål is Kongeriket Norge, while in Nynorsk it is Kongeriket Noreg, both just a couple of letters taken from the original term "northern way": Nor(d)-(v)eg.According to In another theory, the name of the country comes from the word "nór", which means "narrow" or "north", referring to