miracle of the sun
Milagre do Sol was an event that took place on October 13, 1917 in the Cova da Iria land, near Fátima, in Portugal. Estimates of the size of the crowd range from "thirty to forty thousand" by Avelino de Almeida, writing for the Portuguese newspaper O Século, to 100,000, according to an estimate by José de Almeida Garrett, professor of natural sciences at the University of Coimbra; both witnessed the aforementioned event. The event was officially accepted as a miracle by the Catholic Church on October 13, 1930. On October 13, 1951, Cardinal Tedeschini states that, on October 30, October 31, November 1, November 8, Pope Pius XII witnessed a similar miracle in the Vatican gardens.
The three little shepherds of Fatima had reported that in the apparition of May 13th the Virgin Mary had promised them a miracle for the 13th of October, at Cova da Iria, "so that everyone could believe" in Her apparitions. many indications from witnesses, for example the maternal grandfather of Fátima Magalhães, among many others, after a torrential rain, the clouds dissipated in the firmament and the sun appeared as an opaque disk, rotating in the sky. Some claimed that it was not the Sun, but a disk in solar proportions, similar to the Moon. It was said to be observable significantly less bright than normal, accompanied by multicolored lights, which reflected off the landscape, people and clouds. surrounding areas. The alleged Sun was reported to have moved in a zigzag pattern, scaring many of those who witnessed it, who thought it was the end of the world. Many witnesses reported that the soil and previously wet clothes were completely dry in a short period of time, and also reported inexplicable cures for the paralyzed and blind, and other non-explicit illnesses, in several cases also proven by medical testimony. of the witnesses, the Miracle of the Sun lasted approximately ten minutes. The three children reported having observed the Holy Family (St. Joseph, the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus), then Jesus with Our Lady of Sorrows, and, finally, Our Lady of Mount Carmel blessing the crowd from the firmament.
Critical evaluation of the event
Several authors have suggested possible explanations for the alleged miracle based on natural phenomena. Joe Nickell suggests that the witnessed effects may be due to visual effects caused on the retina after exposure to intense light. Nickell also suggests the possibility that the cause was a parelium, a relatively common atmospheric phenomenon. During the day of the phenomenon, no extraordinary scientific observations of the Sun were reported in observatories. Professor Auguste Meessen, Institute of Physics, Catholic University of Leuven, stated that sun miracles cannot be accepted and that the reported observations were optical effects caused by prolonged direct observation of the Sun. Meessen claims that the residual images on the retina, produced after brief periods of staring at the Sun, are the cause. probable of the observed effects of dance. Similarly, Meessen claims that the color changes witnessed were likely caused by excessive stimulation of photosensitive cells in the retina. Meessen warns that "Miracles from the Sun", with the same optical effects, have been witnessed in many places where religious pilgrims have been encouraged to look at the Sun: for example, in 1901 in Tilly-sur-Seuilles, in 1933 in Onkerzeele, in 1944 in Bonate, in 1946 in Espis, in 1950 in Acquaviva Platani, in 1949 in Heroldsbach, in 1950 in Fehrbach. in 1953 in Kerezinen, in 1965 in San Damiano, in 1982 in Tre Fontane, and in 1983 in Kibeho (Rwanda). be dem