May 29, 2022
Beijing (Chinese: 北京) is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the most populous national capital in the world, with more than 21 million inhabitants in an administrative area of 16,410.5 square kilometers. It is located in northern China and is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the Chinese government, with 16 urban, suburban and rural districts. Beijing is mainly surrounded by the province of Hebei, with the exception of neighboring Tianjin, to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jing-Jin-Ji megalopolis and the Chinese national capital region.Beijing is a global city and a megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the cultural, educational center and politician of the nation. It is home to most of the largest Chinese state-owned companies and is home to the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the four largest financial institutions in the world by total assets. Beijing is also the "billion dollar capital of the world" with the largest number of billionaires living in the city. As of 2020, the city has the fifth highest total wealth of any other city in the world. It is also an important transport hub. Beijing Capital International Airport has been the world's second busiest by passenger traffic (the busiest in Asia) since 2010, and as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and longest in the world. Beijing-Daxing International Airport, a second international airport in Beijing, is the world's largest single-structure airport terminal.Combining modern and traditional-style architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back for more than three millennia. As the last of the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China", Beijing has been the country's political center for most of the past eight centuries and was the world's largest city by population for much of the second millennium. With mountains surrounding the city on three sides, in addition to the ancient inner and outer walls, Beijing was strategically positioned and developed to be the emperor's residence and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital. The city is known for its palaces, temples, parks, gardens, tombs, walls and opulent gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven, the Summer Palace, Ming Dynasty tombs, the Zhoukoudian, and parts of the Great Wall and Grand Canal—all popular tourist sites. Beijing are consistently ranked among the best in Asia-Pacific and the world. The city is home to the two best universities in the C9 League (Tsinghua and Beijing) in Asia-Pacific and emerging countries. The Zhongguancun area is a world-leading center for scientific and technological innovation as well as entrepreneurship. Beijing has been ranked as the city with the highest output of scientific research as tracked by the Nature Index since 2016. The city has hosted numerous international and national sporting events, the most notable being the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games. In 2022 , the city became the first city to host the summer and winter editions of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Beijing is home to 175 foreign embassies, as well as the headquarters of many organizations such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.