October 19, 2021
Prize (Brazilian Portuguese) or Prize (European Portuguese) Nobel Prize (in Swedish: Nobelpriset; in Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international prizes awarded in various categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions, to recognize people or institutions that have carried out research, notable discoveries or contributions to humanity in the immediately preceding year or in the course of its activities. Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel's last wish established the prizes in 1895. Prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank established the Prize for Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, which, although not a Nobel Prize, has commonly been known as the Nobel Prize in Economics. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, economics and peace activism. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the Alfred Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences in Memory; the Nobel Assembly of the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy awards the Nobel Prize for Literature; and the Nobel Peace Prize is not awarded by a Swedish organization, but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Between 1901 and 2020, the Nobel Prize and Alfred Nobel's Economic Sciences in Memory Prize were awarded 603 times to 962 individuals and organizations. With some people winning the Nobel more than once, this makes a total of 934 individuals and 28 organizations. The award ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the peace prize, which takes place in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient or laureate receives a gold medal, a diploma and an amount of money that is decided by the Nobel Foundation (the prize was equivalent to 1.1 million dollars in 2017).) Medals made before 1980 were made in 23 gold carats and then in 18 carat green gold with 24-karat gold plating. The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person receives an award and dies before receiving it, the award may still be presented. Although the average number of laureates per award has increased substantially during the 20th century, an award cannot be divided between more than three people, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.