List of Presidents of the Philippines
This is the list of Presidents of the Philippines, which according to the Philippine Constitution of 1987, the President of the Philippines (Philippine: pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and serves as the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces. The president is directly elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of six years and must be "a citizen of the Philippines, registered voter, be able to read and write, be at least forty years of age on election day, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election". Anyone who has served as president for more than six years is barred from eligibility. In the event of resignation or removal from office, the vice president assumes the position.
Emilio Aguinaldo became the first president of the Philippines under the Republic of Malolos, considered the First Republic of the Philippines. He held that position until 1901, when he was captured by the United States Army during the Philippine–American War (1899–1902). The American occupation of the Philippines abolished the First Republic, which led to an American governor-general exercising executive power. In 1935, the United States, in accordance with its promise of full Philippine sovereignty, established the Commonwealth of the Philippines after Constitution of 1935, which also restored the presidency. The first national presidential election was held, and Manuel Quezon (1935-1944) was elected for a six-year term, without re-election, as the second Philippine president and the first President of the Community. In 1940, however, the Constitution was amended to allow for re-election, but shortened the term to four years. A change of government took place three years later when the Second Philippine Republic was organized with the enactment of the 1943 Constitution, which Japan imposed after occupying the Philippines in 1942 during World War II. José P. Laurel acted as puppet president of the new Empire-sponsored government of Japan; his de facto presidency was not legally recognized until the 1960s, as at that time the president of the Commonwealth went into exile and installed an exiled provisional government. The Second Republic was dissolved after Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945; the Community was restored to the Philippines in the same year with Sergio Osmeña (1944-1946) as president.
Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) followed Osmeña when he won the first post-war election in 1946. He became the first president of the independent Philippines when the Commonwealth was dissolved on 4 July of that year. The Third Republic was inaugurated and would cover the administrations of the next five presidents, the last of which was Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1986), carried out a self-coup imposing martial law in 1972. Marcos' dictatorship saw the birth of the New Society (Philippine: Bagong Lipunan) and the Fourth Republic. His term lasted until 1986, when he was overthrown in the People's Power Revolution. The current constitution came into force in 1987, marking the beginning of the Fifth Republic.
Of the individuals elected as president, three died in office: two of natural causes (Manuel L. Quezon and Manuel Roxas) and one in a plane crash (Ramon Magsaysay, 1953-1957). The oldest president is Ferdinand Marcos, with 20 years and 57 days in office; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. The lowest is Sergio Osmeña, who spent 1 year and 300 days in office.
Two women have held the office: Corazon Aquino (1986–92), who ascended to the presidency after the successful People's Power Revolution of 1986, and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001–10), who, as vice president, ascended to the presidency. presidency after Estrada's resignation and was elected to a full six-year term in 2004.
list of presidents